Papers by Keyword: Biomineralization

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Authors: Elizabeth C. Kolos, Andrew Ruys, Greg J. Roger
Authors: P. Yong, M. Paterson-Beedle, W. Liu, Z. Zhang, D.A. Beauregard, M.L. Johns, Lynne E. Macaskie
Abstract: This study describes biofilm formation as a non line-of-sight coating method on support materials such as polyurethane foam, porous glass, polypropylene (PP) and titanium alloy, using a Serratia sp., which can manufacture extracellular nanoscale scaffolded hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals via enzymatic cleavage of glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) in the presence of CaCl2. Various microscopies and non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging were used to visualize the biofilm coating on the support surface. A novel micromanipulation technique was used to estimate the adhesive strength of native and HA-mineralized biofilms. The biofilm with HA was up to forty times stronger than that without HA. A coating of nano-HA (> 80 m) onto a biofilm-Ti disc was achieved.
Authors: Sergey V. Dorozhkin
Abstract: Amorphous calcium phosphates (ACPs) represent a unique class of biomedically relevant calcium orthophosphate salts, in which there are neither translational nor orientational long-range orders of the atomic positions. Nevertheless, the constancy in their chemical composition over a relatively wide range of preparation conditions suggests the presence of a well-defined local structural unit, presumably, with the structure of Ca9(PO4)6 – so-called Posner’s cluster. ACPs have variable chemical but rather identical glass-like physicochemical properties. Furthermore, all ACPs are thermodynamically unstable compounds and, unless stored in dry conditions or doped by stabilizers, spontaneously they tend to transform to crystalline calcium orthophosphates. Although some order within general disorder is the most distinguishing feature of ACPs, the solution instability of ACPs and their easy transformation to crystalline phases might be of a great biological relevance. Namely, the initiating role ACPs play in matrix vesicle biomineralization raises the importance of this phase from a mere laboratory curiosity to that of a key intermediate in skeletal calcification. Furthermore, ACPs are very promising candidates to manufacture artificial bone grafts.
Authors: Andreas Goetz, Erika Griesshaber, Wolfgang W. Schmahl
Abstract: Sea urchins mineralize Mg-calcite skeletons, both, within their exoskeletons as well as in their spines. In this study we have investigated sea urchin spines of the species Amblypneustes pachistus. The spines are round and consist of several wedges that extend from the base to the tip of the spine. The wedges are connected to each other by porous calcite. Rocking curves of the spines show a distribution of 0.5° of the 110 reflection, with the domains being misoriented by 0.1° to each other. In our EBSD system the average mean angular (MAD) deviation is 0.3°. This is higher than the signal that is needed for the detection of small misorientations of domains within a sea urcin spine. In order to increase the precision (not the accuracy) of the EBSD measurements several factors, such as geometric artifacts and charging of calcite were minimized. Handling of these factors and utilizing the subsequently described statistical approach allowed for the identification of different domains within the spines. It further allowed calculating the degree of misorientation between these domains. Our EBSD analyses and the subsequent evaluation of the data show that the wedges forming the spines of Amblypneustes pachistus are mosaic crystals. The misorientation of the wedges to each other increases from the base of the spine towards its tip. The here proposed method for increasing the precision of the angular resolution showed reproducibility on silicon of 0.05°.
Authors: J.M. Irwan, Norzila Othman
Abstract: In Malaysia and worldwidely, concrete is one of the most popular construction material because of its strong, durable and inexpensive material. It has speciality of being cast in any desirable shape but plain concrete however is porous, possesses very low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. These problem become more complicated in various environmental condition like Malaysia to which concrete is exposed. Conventionally, a variety of sealing agent namely, latex emulsions suffer from serious limitations of incompatible interfaces, susceptible to ultraviolet radiations, unstable molecular structure and high cost. Therefore, a novel and more environmental friendly technique is proposed for treating concrete material in structure by employing bacteria induced calcium carbonate precipitation in the form of calcite
Authors: M.A. Alvarez-Pérez, M. García-Hipolito, J. de La Fuente Hernández, H. Arzate, B. Carmona-Rodriguez, L.A. Ximenez-Fyvie, J.A. Juarez-Islas, O. Alvarez-Fregoso
Abstract: We have used zinc aluminate nanostructured films deposited by spray pyrolysis to determine its biocompatibility assessed by cells attachment and cell differentiation. Cell attachment onto zinc aluminate showed an increase of 53, 81 and 86% at 180, 300 and 420 minutes (p<0.05) when compared to controls. Mineralization was analyzed at 5 and 14 days of culture by scanning electron microscopy, microanalysis and atomic force microscopy. Our results showed in experimental culture a higher density of mineral-like tissue with small needle-shaped crystal and granular nanoparticles with preferential orientation when compared to controls. The composition of the mineral-like tissue deposited in zinc aluminate nanostructured material had a Ca/P ratio of 1.6, whereas control culture had a Ca/P ratio of 1.50. Our finding revealed that ZnAl2O4 promoted higher expression of type I collagen, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, suggesting that zinc aluminate provides a microenvironment that favors mineral formation and cell differentiation. Our results point to the potential use of ZnAl2O4 for the osteoinductive process in biomedical implants.
Authors: B. Palazzo, D. Izzo, F. Scalera, A.N. Cancelli, F. Gervaso
Abstract: Natural bone ECM is a hierarchical nanocomposite made of an inorganic phase deposited within an organic matrix. In order to mimic the bone highly organized hybrid structure and functionality, strategies that allow assembling ceramic and polymer phase can be applied. To this aim, we investigated an in situ growth method able to nucleate a nanoHydroxyapatite (nHAp) phase into and around the interconnected porous structure of chitosan sponges. By increasing the calcium and phosphate concentration in the meta-stable solution used for the nHAp nucleation, the inorganic phase raised proportionally, in the range 10%-30% wt. In order to be compared with nHAp loaded scaffolds, pure chitosan samples have been produced by cross-linking biopolymer with arginine. Moreover, nHAp loaded samples, containing the 20 % wt of inorganic phase have been prepared by simply mixing low crystalline nHAp powders with the chitosan gel. The in situ nucleation method highlighted evident advantages in terms of nanophase distribution and mechanical performances with respect to a merely mixing procedure.
Authors: Qiang Liu, Bing Jian Zhang, Hui Zhu
Abstract: The conservation of historic stone buildings and sculptures is receiving growing attention from many fields because of increasing bad weathering. At present, special attentions are paid to development of new protective materials. In this paper, we review that some findings of crude protective film of biomimetic materials on the historic stone buildings and sculptures, discuss their biological origin, and propose an approach to prepare the protective agents through the biomimetic method. Moreover, an overview of the Principle of biomineraliztion and biomimetics syntheses is provided. Thus, it is dedicated that the biomimetic synthesis should have great potentialities in applied protective methods and should represent a new prospective in stone conservation.
Authors: Quan Yuan, Xiao Dong Guo, Qi Xin Zheng, Ming Zhao, Zheng Qi Pan, Shun Guang Chen, Da Ping Quan
Abstract: Natural bone is a typical example of an “organic matrix-mediated” biomineralization process which constituted of hydroxyapatite(HA) nanocrystals orderly grown in intimate contact with collagen fibers. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is the most powerful osteogenic factor. But it is extremely difficult to be manufactured in large scale. In previous study, we have designed a novel oligopeptide (P24) derived from BMP2 knuckle epitope and it contained abundant Asp(aspartic acid) and phosphorylated Ser(serine) which may be helpful for self-assambly biomineralization and osteogenesis. Previous In vivo experiments have shown that this novel oligopeptide had excellent osteoinductive and ectopic bone formation property which was similar to that of BMP2. In this study, PLGA-(PEG-ASP)n scaffolds were modified with P24 and a new biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffold material with enhanced bioactivity was synthesized by a biologically inspired mineralization approach. Peptide P24 was introduced into PLGA-(PEG-ASP)n scaffolds using cross-linkers. Then the P24 modified scaffolds and the simple PLGA-(PEG-ASP)n scaffolds were incubated in modified simulated body fluid (mSBF) for 10 days. Growth of HA nanocrystals on the materials was confirmed by observation SEM and measurements EDS and XRD. SEM analysis demonstrated the well growth of bonelike HA nanocrystals on P24 modified PLGA-(PEG-ASP)n scaffolds than that of the control scaffolds. The main component of mineral of the P24 modified scaffolds was hydroxyapatite containing low crystalline nanocrystals, and the Ca/P ratio was nearly 1.60, similar to that of natural bone, while that of the control scaffolds was 1.52. The introduction of peptide P24 into PLGA- (PEG- ASP)n copolymer provides abundant active sites to mediate the nucleation and self- ssembling of HA nanocrystals in mSBF. the resulted peptide P24 modified- HA/PLGA- (PEG- ASP)n composite shows some features of natural bone both in main composition and and hierarchical microstructure. This biomimetic treatment provides a simple method for surface functionalization and subsequent biomineralization on biodegradable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering.
Authors: C. Du, Fu Zhai Cui, K. de Groot, Pierre Layrolle
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