Papers by Keyword: Biosorption

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Authors: Simone Ribeiro, Suelen Cristina Sartoretto, Rodrigo Resende, Marcelo Uzeda, Adriana Terezinha Alves, Silvia Albuquerque Santos, Giovana Pesce, Alexandre Malta Rossi, J.M. Granjeiro, Fulvio Miguel, Mônica Diuana Calasans-Maia
Abstract: The hydroxyapatite (HA) is a biocompatible and bioactive biomaterial used as bone substitute, however, the high crystallinity of HA and consequently its low solubility may be a limitation for its clinical use. In order to improve the biosorption of HA, the partial substitutions in the chemical structure and doping with small amounts of impurities have been study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of 3% Zinc-containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite (ZncHA) compared with the carbonated hydroxyapatite (cHA), both synthesized at 37°C and non-sintered, using as control the stoichiometric HA microspheres in subcutaneous of mice. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Vibrational Spectroscopy in Infra Red Fourier Transform (FTIR) were used to characterize the biomaterials. In vivo test was performed in BALB/c mice by implanting of HA, cHA and ZncHA spheres in the subcutaneous tissue for 1, and 9 weeks (n=5). The negative control consisted in incision without material implantation (Sham group). The samples were histological processed to descriptive analysis of biological effect. The microscopic analysis showed a similar granulation reaction between groups at the first experimental period. In 9 weeks there was a time dependent biosorption of cHA compared with other groups. In conclusion, the biomaterials tested were biocompatible and cHA group showed a significant biosorption in comparison with HA and ZncHA groups. The doping of zinc did not influence the biocompatibility of biomaterial, however, change the biosorption response
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Authors: So Young Kang, Jong Un Lee, Kyoung Woong Kim
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa biomass was used to investigate the biosorption properties of heavy metals in wastewater. The biosorption isotherm of Co2+ was best described by the Langmuir model when washed cells were employed, and results obtained utilizing heat-treated P. aeruginosa were also adequately represented by a Langmuir sorption isotherm. In contrast, the sorption isotherm involving unwashed P. aeruginosa showed a different isotherm profile and did not attain equilibrium in the range of metal concentrations investigated; the amount of Co2+ uptake increased with increasing initial metal concentration but never reached adsorption equilibrium, most likely due to bacterial production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The biosorption results utilizing unwashed P. aeruginosa were best described by a Freundlich isotherm. The level of metal adsorption in low pH was significantly small due to competition between the cation and H+ ions for binding sites distributed on cell surfaces, while the increase in pH favored metal sorption because of the elevated quantities of negatively charged surface functional groups. The sorption of Co2+ was strongly influenced by the presence of competing cations in the solution. Trivalent Cr3+ added to the solution was preferentially adsorbed onto the cells relative to Co2+ and Ni2+. The results may be attributed to the higher adsorption affinity of Cr3+ in comparison to either Co2+ or Ni2+. The affinity order (Cr3+ > Co2+ » Ni2+) was maintained over a pH range up to 5.3 in a mixture solution.
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Authors: Farah Aimi Fuadi, Siti Nor Izuera Nor-Azemi, Syed Shatir A. Syed-Hassan
Abstract: Four types of biomass were characterized to investigate its metal adsorption capacity. The biomass were soaked in with nickel and cobalt solutions to examine the effect of biomass to amount of metal adsorbed. Oil palm mesocarp fibre (OPMF), empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm kernel shell (PKS) and sawdust were used in this study. Among all the biomass studied, oil palm mesocarp fibre shows the highest adsorption capacity with 1.8 mg/g and 1.6 mg/g of nickel and cobalt uptake, respectively. The metals adsorbed on the biomass were found to disperse into nanosize range.
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Authors: Zeng Quan Ji, Tian Hai Wang, Kai Hong Luo, Yao Qing Wang
Abstract: An extracellular biopolymer (PFC02) produced by Pseudomonas alcaligenes was used as an alternative biosorbent to remove toxic Cd(II) metallic ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, Cd(II) initial concentration and contact time on the adsorption was studied. It was found that pH played a major role in the adsorption process, the optimum pH for the removal of Cd(II) was 6.0. The FTIR spectra showed carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups of the PFC02 were involved in chemical interaction with the Cd(II) ions. Equilibrium studies showed that Cd(II) adsorption data followed Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for Cd(II) ions was estimated to be 93.55 mg/g. The kinetic studies showed that the kinetic rates were best fitted to the pseudo-second-order model. The study suggestted that the novel extracellular biopolymer biosorbent have potential applications for removing Cd(II) from wastewater.
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Authors: Ling Xian Luo, Tai Zhi Zhang, Lv Bao Tong
Abstract: The objective of this study is to assess the potential applicability of an extracellular biopolymer (PA-2) produced by Pseudomonas alcaligenes as biosorbent remove the Cu(II) ions from environmental and industrial wastewater. The effects such as pH, Cu(II) initial concentration and sorbate-sorbent contact time and agitating speed on the adsorption capacities of PA-2 were studied. Biosorption equilibriums were rapidly established in about 60 min and the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Biosorption equilibrium datas were better described by Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm were 81.36 mg /g PA-2. The carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of the PA-2 were involved in chemical interaction with the Cu(II) ions depicted by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) results. The present study indicated that PA-2 may be used as an inexpensive, effective and easily cultivable biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) ions from environmental and industrial wastewater.
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Authors: Yogesh Patil, Viraja Bhat, Prakash Rao
Abstract: This paper attempts to propose an innovative strategy/model for the recovery of precious metal like silver from e-waste by employing combined technologies. Firstly, silver is leached using free cyanide from electronic scrap thereby forming silver-cyanide complex. In the second step, silver-cyanide is removed using biosorption using passive Eicchornia roots powder biomass. Lastly, the residual silver-cyanide remaining after biosorption is biodegraded using live heterotrophic bacterial consortium. Feasibility study showed that the overall system strategy worked efficiently for the management of e-waste.
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Authors: Norzila Othman, S. Mohd-Asharuddin, M.F.H. Azizul-Rahman
Abstract: Biosorption is an environmental friendly method for metal removal as it can be used as a cost effective and efficient technique for heavy metal removal. A lot of biomass can be choosed as biosorbent such as waste material from food processing and agriculture.ent. This paper will review the potential used of local fruit rind as biosorbent for heavy metal removal in wastewater. Heavy metals have been in various industries and resulted to a toxic condition in aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, various techniques have been employed for the treatment of metal-bearing industrial wastewaters including biological treatment through biosorption. Biosorption offers the advantages of low cost, good efficiency and production of sludge with high metal content is possible to avoid by the existence of metal recovery method from metal loaded biosorbent. The successful application of local fruit waste in treating wastewater containing heavy metals requires a deeper understanding of how biosorbent material proceeds.
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Authors: Min Xiao, Jian Can Hu, Wen Li Liu, Feng Ming Nie
Abstract: Heavy metal pollution has raised a lot of concerns because of its bioaccumulation and non-degradability. A variety of methods have been applied in removal of heavy metals. This paper focused on the method of biosorption using biopolymer-based adsorbents in removing heavy metals from waster water. Cellulose and chitin/chitosan are abundant in supply and contain reactive functional groups. Cellulose-based adsorbents prepared from direct chemical modification or graft copolymerization are proved to show chelating ability to bind heavy metals. Chitin-and chitosan-based adsorbents have improved mechanical strength and better resistance to chemical conditions after physical or chemical modification. The regeneration and reusability of biopolymer-based adsorbents were also discussed in this paper.
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Authors: Marios Tsezos
Abstract: Microbial cell – soluble species interactions can be part of technologies for the treatment of metal/metalloid and radionuclide bearing water streams in order to sequester the targeted species. Interactions of microbial cells and soluble targeted species include passive and active processes of metabolically inactive or active biomass, and result in the reduction of their mobility and toxicity. Different parts of the cell may sequester targeted species via processes such as complexation, chelation, coordination, ion exchange, precipitation and reduction. Collectively, these mechanisms have been referred to as sorption and the overall phenomenon as biosorption. The term biosorption is generally used to describe the passive interaction of microbial biomass with targeted species. The technologies based on these processes, lead to the set up of units, mainly in the form of packed bed reactors similar to the configuration of ion exchange resins reactors, placed at the end of a treatment process as a polishing stage. In order to maintain durability of the sorbent, the microbial cells harvested from different sources, are formulated into particles by way of immobilization – pelletization. In the early years of Biosorption, a significant effort was devoted to study the reusability of the sorbent by repeated sorption – desorption cycles, in order to reduce the operating cost of the technology. The availability of the biosorbent material, the reversibility of the desorption process, the presence of competing co-ions and organic molecules, posed significant scepticism and finally serious doubt about the industrial applicability of biosorption as a stand alone technology. However the mechanisms are active and present in biological reactors, and can contribute to overall species sequestering. Biological reactors based on active microbial biomass as alternative to passive sorption, exploit the self regenerating features of living biomass along with the traits of microbial metabolism. Active cells produce metabolites (i.e. EPS, simple inorganic moieties etc.) interacting chemically with the targeted species. The active biomass offers the additional attractive feature of forming biofilms on the surface of carrier materials allowing a natural way of cell immobilization. Different biofilm reactor configurations e.g. static or moving bed filters, fluidized bed reactors, rotating biological contactors support the development of biofilms. Conditions such as temperature, pH, presence of toxic compounds etc. should be considered in the applicability of the technology. Important metabolically mediated immobilization processes for metal/metalloid and radionuclide species are bioprecipitation and bioreduction. Bioprecipitation processes include the transformation of soluble species to insoluble hydroxides, carbonates, phosphates, sulfides or metal – organic complexes as a result of the microbial metabolism. In the case of biological reduction, the cells may use the species as terminal electron acceptors in anoxic environments to produce energy or reduce the toxicity of the cells microenvironment. Such processes form the basis for treatment technologies which are recently developed and applied both in pilot and full scale.
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Authors: Manuel Román Jimeno, Antonio Ballester, Manuel García Roig, Eric Guibal, Maria Clara Costa
Abstract: Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important environmental problems today even threatening human life. A large number of industries produce and discharge wastes containing different heavy metals into the environment and do not comply with current EU directives. European project BIOMETAL DEMO (www.biometaldemo.eu) aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the application of novel biotechnologies for the treatment of metal polluted wastewaters through the development of three pilot plants to be implemented in metal polluting representative industries.The biotechnologies that have been evaluated in project BIOMETAL DEMO are: metal bioprecipitation by sulphate-reducing bacteria and immobilized phytase biocatalysis, and metal biosorption on agricultural industry by-products and biopolymers such as alginate & chitosan based materials.After the evaluation of these techniques, an optimized bioprocess or a synergy of two integrated bioprocesses will be selected to design and build two demonstration pilot plants for scaling-up the metal removal biotreatment.Finally, an economic, social and technical analysis of the benefits of such biotreatment of metal polluted industrial wastewater will be carried out for the corresponding and related industrial sectors.
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