Papers by Keyword: Bone Regeneration

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Authors: Sittiporn Punyanitya, Rungsarit Koonawoot, Anucha Ruksanti, Sakdiphon Thiansem, Anirut Raksujarit, Watchara Sontichai
Abstract: Biodegradable scaffold is an accepted and commercialized medical alternative choice for bone regeneration. In this project, we used our new invention, porous starch-Hydroxyapatite (HA) composite for in vivo clinical trial. The products were prepared from medical grade Thai rice starch mixed with high purity (>97%) HA powder from fresh cow bone, and already passed in vivo animal biocompatibility test, then processed by freeze-drying. There were 44 volunteers from orthopedic and neurosurgical division, 4 and 40 patients, respectively. The results were assessed by operative surgeons and nurses, pre-and intraoperative period, including size appropriateness, comfort handle, ease of cutting, void space filling, water stability, product weight, shelf storage, package opening, contamination risk and waste removal. All average satisfactory scales were more than 95% rating. For postoperative period, at least 6 months, the soft tissue swellings around surgical areas were resoluted about 3 days as usual healing process. There were no any symptoms or signs of infection or allergic reactions. The follow up of x-ray imaging showed well ossification about 2 months. All patients have gained good functional performance. So porous starch-HA composites biomaterial can be used for human bone and skull regeneration with completely safety and efficacy.
Authors: Eliana dos Santos Câmara-Pereira, Ana Emília Holanda Rolim, Evelyn Reale, Rafael Barreto, Lilian Campos, Aryon de Almeida Barbosa Junior, Alexandre Malta Rossi, Silvia Rachel de Albuquerque-Santos, Fabiana Paim Rosa
Abstract: Bone tissue in ideal conditions morphofunctional remodeling properly. The bone can be affected by fractures, tumors, hormonal dysfunction, senescence, genetic modifications, among others. In such circumstances, the proper diet, drug use, exercise and other factors are important to the prevention of bone mineral loss. The effect of kinesiotherapy obtained through the application of vibratory waves administered through the vibrating platform, Juvent1000 ® already been established in the prevention of bone mineral density, muscular trophism, among other systems in humans. The response by analyzing bone tissue of bone repair in critical defect is not known in experimental animals and in human clinical. This research evaluated the osteogenic potential critical defect in the calvaria of rats subjected to the application of vibratory waves obtained by vibrating platform and implant in the critical defect of rat calvaria. The bone tissue response was evaluated showed satisfactory results obtained in biological points 15, 45 and 120 days.
Authors: G. Pavan Kumar, A. Jaya Kumar, P. Krishnanjaneya Reddy, Sooraj Hussain Nandyala, M.A. Lopes, José D. Santos
Abstract: Bony defects caused by periodontitis are often treated by regenerative therapy using autografts and/or allografts. Alloplasts such as hydroxyapatite or ceramics and bioactive glasses are used as osteoconductive materials that serve as scaffold for new bony ingrowth. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the possible regenerative capability of glass reinforced hydroxyapatite (Bonelike¬)¬¬¬ an osteoconductive synthetic graft in the treatment of human periodontal intrabony angular defects. The material was placed in 2 defects in 2 individual patients and clinical parameters such as probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) have been included. Bone fill was determined using an intra oral periapical radiograph (IOPA) and Autocad Software. After 3 months implantation period, there was an improvement in CAL and reduction in PD along with bone fill was observed.
Authors: Julian R. Jones, Peter D. Lee
Abstract: Bone tissue has evolved into hierarchical three-dimensional structures with dimensions ranging from nanometres to metres. The structure varies depending on the site in the body, which is dictated by the loading environment. Medically, bone is one of the most replaced body parts (second only to blood) but replicating these complex living hierarchical structures for the purpose of regenerating defective bone is a challenge that has yet to be overcome. A temporary template (scaffold) is needed that matches the hierarchical structure of native bone as closely as possible that is available ‘off the shelf’ for surgeons to use. After implantation the scaffold must bond to bone and stimulate not only three dimensional (3D) bone growth, but also vascularisation to feed the new bone. There are many engineering design criteria for a successful bone scaffold and bioactive glass foam scaffolds have been developed that can fulfil most of them, as they have a hierarchical porous structure, they can bond to bone, and they release soluble silica species and calcium ions that have been found to up-regulate seven families of genes in osteogenic cells. Other ions have also been incorporated to combat infection and to counteract osteoporosis. Their tailorable hierarchical structure consists of highly interconnected open spherical macropores, further, because the glass is sol-gel derived, the entire structure is nanoporous. The macropores are critical for bone and blood vessel growth, the nanopores for tailoring degradation rates and protein adsorption and for cell attachment. This chapter describes the optimised sol-gel foaming process and how bone cells respond to them. Whatever type of scaffold is used for bone regeneration, it is critically important to be able to quantify the hierarchial pore structure. The nanopore size can be quantified using gas sorption, but to obtain full information of the macropore structure, imaging must be done using X-ray microtomography and the resulting images must be quantified via 3D image analysis. These techniques are reviewed.
Authors: Sofia G. Caridade, Esther G. Merino, Gisela M. Luz, N.M. Alves, João F. Mano
Abstract: A number of combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics have been used for orthopaedic applications including in hard tissue regeneration. Ideally, composites aimed to be used in orthopaedic applications should combine adequate mechanical properties and bioactivity. Chitosan (CTS) has been widely used for biomedical applications, namely in tissue regeneration or drug delivery. In this sense, membranes of chitosan and chitosan with Bioglass® (BG) were prepared by solvent casting and characterised using Scanning Electron Microscopy. In vitro bioactivity tests were performed in the composite membranes, namely by monitoring their capability to induce the precipitation of apatite upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results showed that the addition of BG promoted the deposition of an apatite-like layer. The deposition of apatite could influence the mechanical performance of the material. Therefore, in order to follow this biomineralization, the viscoelastic properties of these composite membranes (immersed in SBF) were evaluated. The change in the storage modulus (E’) and the loss factor (Tan δ) were measured as a function of immersion time using non-conventional dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests, in which the samples were kept in wet conditions and at 37°C during the measurements. The mechanical properties of the chitosan membranes were improved by the addition of BG particles. An increase on the storage modulus was observed by the composite membranes while for the pure chitosan membranes the storage modulus was stable up to 7 days. Clear changes were detected in the composite membranes that contrasted with pure chitosan (CTS) membranes that exhibit stable viscoelastic properties up to 7 days. In addition, this work showed that sample characterization in the hydrated state can be useful to predict the mechanical performance of composites under meaningful physiological conditions.
Authors: Ahmed El-Ghannam
Abstract: Silica-calcium-phosphate composite (SCPC) is a drug delivery platform that has successfully demonstrated the ability to bind and release several therapeutics including antibiotics, peptides, anticancer drugs, and growth factors. It has successfully demonstrated a unique capacity for bone regeneration. The present studies address the effect of the phosphate and silicate functional groups on drug binding and controlled release kinetics of Cisplatin (Cis). Moreover, the roles of ceramic composition and resorbability on rhBMP2 release kinetics and bone regeneration in a critical size calvarial defect in rabbit is presented.
Authors: H. Omi, Soichiro Itoh, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Y. Asou, S. Nishikawa, M. Tanaka, Kenichi Shinomiya, Satoshi Toh
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite/hyaluronic acid (HAp/HyA) and hydroxyapatite/chondroitin sulfate (HAp/ChS) microparticles, which show the high adsorption ability of proteins, high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, are potential scaffolds for a time-controlled BMP release. The present study evaluated the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of the composites after injection into bone defect. Drilled bone holes were made at tibia and femur of Japanese white rabbits, and HAp/HyA or HAp/ChS was implanted into each bone hole using an injection syringe. After 2 and 4 weeks of implantation, rabbits were sacrificed and histological observations were conducted with HE, TRAP, and ALP staining. Histological observations revealed that HAp/ChS has superior biocompatibility compared with HAp/HyA, and 20% HAp/ChS promotes bone formation as well as osteoblast activities compared with lower ratios of HAp/ChS.
Authors: Csaba Balázsi, Gréta Gergely, Katalin Balázsi, Chang Hoon Chae, Hye Young Sim, Je Yong Choi, Seong Gon Kim
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite, (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and teeth. HAp is among of the few materials that are classified as bioactive, meaning that it will support bone ingrowth and osseointegration when used in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications. Hydroxyapatite may be employed in forms such as powders, porous blocks and hybrid composites to fill bone defects or voids. These may arise when large sections of bone have had to be removed or when bone augmentations are required (e.g. dental applications). In this work, nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) was successfully produced by using recycled eggshell and phosphoric acid by mechanochemical activation method (e.g. attrition milling). nanoHAp bioactivity was evaluated in animal (rabbit) models. Sixteen 4-month-old New Zealand white rabbits with an average weight of 2.8kg were used in experiments. After bilateral parietal bony defects formation (diameter: 8.0mm), nanoHAp was grafted. The control was unfilled defect. The bone regeneration was evaluated by micro-computerized tomograms (μCT) and histomorphometric analysis at 4 and 8 weeks. In conclusion, nanoHAp from eggshell showed much more bone formation compared to unfilled control group in both μCT analysis and histomorphometric analysis. Considering that the eggshell is easily available and cheap, nanoHAp from the eggshell can be good calcium source in tissue engineering.
Authors: Thomas Gerber, Cornelia Ganz, W. Xu, F. Maier, B. Frerich, S. Lenz
Abstract: The aim of the described study was to generate and evaluate a putty-like bone graft substitute ready to use for dental and orthopedic surgery. According to the asking of clinicians the new material should avoid the necessity of mixing blood and bone graft during the surgical process. Therefor the granulous material NanoBone® has been combined with a hydrogel based on Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and tested in standardized rat tibia defect over a period of 12 weeks and evaluated histologically. The results showed no limitations of the granulate characteristics in matrix change and hence a high level of vascularization and bone formation. An example for dental application shows the outcome in the case of socket preservation.
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