Papers by Keyword: Contraction

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Authors: Hai Tao Wang, Ji Wen Tan, Zhong Chu, Chun Yan Sheng
Abstract: Proper content of titanium, microalloying in steel ZG200-400 smelted in intermediate frequency induction furnace, could effectively increase the volume of concentrated shrinkage cavity, and restrain the forming of shrinkage porosity. The concentrated shrinkage cavity was analyzed quantitatively by stuffing wet gluten and draining water method. The maximal cavity arrived at 0.18wt.% titanium microalloying. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscope (EDS) analysis, it was found that TiC, acting as heterogeneous nuclei, could refine the structure grains, diminish the strong dendrites, and increase the fluidity and feeding capacity of steel liquid. However, overdoes titanium microalloying easily caused mass nitrides or oxides, which kept solid phases with high meting point in metal liquid to increase its viscosity, decrease the fluidity and enlarged the composition supercooling. So the metal liquid, with poor feeding, left more shrinkage porosity, less concentrated shrinkage cavity in solidification.
Authors: Supardi, Harsojo, Yusril Yusuf
Abstract: Liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs), either side-chain LCEs (SCLCEs) or main-chain LCEs (MCLCEs), possess a combination of LC and elastic properties, and are expected to be used as artificial muscles. We experimentally investigated the thermo-induced mechanical effects showed by MCLCEs with four different crosslinker concentrations, i.e., 8%, 12%, 14% and 16%. The samples were heated up to the critical temperature and the images were recorded. The samples made the contraction in direction parallel to the director and the expansion in direction perpendicular to the director. Drastic changes occured when approaching the critical temperature, the greater the crosslinkers concentration the bigger the maximum contraction and expansion. The shape anisotropy expression showed that heating up to the critical temperature caused the system no longer in anisotropic state.
Authors: Alexander Hošovský, Kamil Židek
Abstract: Pneumatic artificial muscles belong to a category of nonconventional pneumatic actuators that are distinctive for their high power/weight ratio, simple construction and low price and maintenance costs. As such, pneumatic artificial muscles represent an alternative type of pneumatic actuator that could replace the traditional ones in certain applications. Due to their specific construction, PAM-based systems have nonlinear characteristics which make it more difficult to design a control system with good performance. In the paper, a gray-box model (basically analytical but with certain experimental parts) of the one degree-of-freedom PAM-based actuator is derived. This model interconnects the description of pneumatic and mechanical part of the system through a set of several nonlinear differential equations and its main purpose is the design of intelligent control system in simulation environment. The model is validated in both open-loop and closed-loop mode using the measurements on real plant and the results confirm that model performance is in good agreement with the performance of real actuator.
Authors: Dong Lim Seol, Won Hee Jang, Sung Jae Lee, Young Il Yang
Abstract: The goal of this study was to investigate effects of fibrin reinforcement of collagen sponges on fibroblasts-mediated contraction and in vivo tissue regeneration, especially angiogenesis. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs)-populated collagen sponges reinforced with or without fibrin were cultivated via the free-floating method in vitro. They were then evaluated using xenogeneic implantation into nude mice. The HDFs-populated collagen sponges reinforced with fibrin exhibited significantly decreased HDFs-mediated contraction in vitro (p<0.05). Microvascular and cellular densities of the collagen sponges were significantly higher with fibrin than without (p<0.01). Cell ingrowths, neovascularization, and deposition of ECM matrix were more evenly distributed in the fibrin-reinforced collagen matrices. The results demonstrated that fibrin reinforcement of porous collagen sponges can reduce cell-mediated contraction in vitro while enhancing functional integration with surrounding tissue in vivo.
Authors: Khaled Grine
Abstract: This paper describe a laboratory investigation into the effects of adding silica sand and/or cement on the behaviour of artificial carbonate sand under shear and compression. Drained shear and compressibility tests have been performed on artificial carbonate sand samples and artificial carbonate sand samples mixed with different proportion by weight of silica sand and/or cement in order to determine the shear stress-strain and compressibility characteristics of the mixed material.The results demonstrate that contraction during shear and compressibility during isotropic compression decrease as the fraction of silica sand and/or cement increases within the artificial carbonate sand.A positive volumetric change (dilation) during shear is more obvious with cemented samples. It also demonstrate how the addition of a combination of silica sand and cement produces the most effective improvement in terms of strength, stiffness, compressibility and crushing.
Authors: Joshua D. Caldwell, Robert E. Stahlbush, Orest J. Glembocki, Karl D. Hobart, Kendrick X. Liu, Marko J. Tadjer
Abstract: The nucleation and expansion of Shockley stacking faults (SSFs) in 4H-SiC is known to induce an increase in the forward voltage drop (Vf) of bipolar devices such as pin diodes. However, recent annealing experiments have shown that SSFs can not only expand, but that low temperature annealing (210-7000C) induces a contraction of the SSFs that is coupled with a full and repeatable recovery of the Vf drift. Here we report that following extended periods of forward bias operation that the Vf drift of 10kV 4H-SiC pin diodes saturates, with the saturation Vf drift dropping with increasing stressing temperature. Upon reaching saturation, increases in temperature during forward bias operation at the same injection conditions also lead to a partial recovery of the Vf drift. Furthermore, the magnitude of this current-induced recovery is dependent upon the injection current, as reductions in the current cause a slower, but larger overall Vf drift recovery. All of these results clearly indicate that the current driving force models for SSF expansion are either incomplete or incorrect and that further efforts are required for a more complete understanding of SSF dynamics to be obtained.
Authors: Dimitra S. Passa, Anastasia B. Sotiropoulou, Zacharias G. Pandermarakis, George D. Mitsopoulos
Abstract: The results of the experimental investigation of the developing expansion and contraction strains of both plastering mortar and Expanded Polystyrene Foam (EPS) coatings, during thermal and drying cyclic loading are presented. The mortar used, is cement based with hydrated lime and fine marble aggregates. The EPS specimens were cut from boards of various qualities, appropriate for the external insulation of buildings. Mortar and EPS specimens were subjected to temperature cyclic changes, during which the occurring expansion and contraction strains were recorded. Based on these data, assumptions were made for the nature and the mechanism of the growing strains, in order to collect the necessary information to develop solutions for the critical problem of mortar cracking when applied over EPS insulating boards.
Authors: Suyitno, Dmitry G. Eskin, Laurens Katgerman
Abstract: Shape distortions and hot cracking during casting are strongly related to thermal contraction during and after solidification. The understanding of this phenomenon is crucial in designing defect-free cast products and in numerical simulation of their thermomechanical behavior. This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical simulation work on the thermal contraction during and after solidification of a commercial AA5182 alloy. In the specially developed experimental set-up, the contraction is measured simultaneously with temperature while the material solidifies and cools down in the solid state. An elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model fitted to experimental data is used in finite element simulations of the contraction process. The implementation of thermal contraction data for ingot distortion during the start-up phase of casting is also included. The results show that the contraction starts at a certain temperature in the nonequilibrium solidification range, close to the non-equilibrium solidus. Good agreement is found between simulation and experimental results.
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