Papers by Keyword: Corrosion Products

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Authors: Kai Wang, Meng Cheng Chen, Li Xie
Abstract: A research program was undertaken to discover the corrosion mechanism of portland cementitious materials to acid rain attack in China. The deterioration process and corrosion products of hardened ordinary portland cement pastes in pH 2 simulated acid rain solution were analyzed by XRD and BSE. The results indicate that the destruction of hardened portland cementitious materials by acid rain attack in China is predominantly due to the coordinated effect of H+ and SO42- of acid rain solution, and gradually occurs from the surface to the interior of materials. The corrosion products are mainly a white mushy mixture consisting of silica gel (SiO2•nH2O), alumina gel (Al2O3•nH2O) and dihydrate gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) crystal. During the process of acid rain attack, the deteriorated specimen can be divided into corrosion layer, affected layer and unaffected layer.
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Authors: Salah-Eddine Mechraoui, S. Amami, A. Laksimi, S. Benmedakhene
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Authors: Hua Song, Di Tao Niu, Si Yuan Liu
Abstract: Corrosion products which occupy much greater volume accumulate, and generate expansive pressures on the surrounding concrete. The pressure builds up and eventually leads to the cover cracking of the structures. The cracking accelerates further corrosion and leads to the loss of the bond strength and the load carrying capacity. Corrosion cracking would reveal the reducing of the residual service life of the corrosion-affected structures. In this paper, an analytical model is proposed to predict the critical corrosion penetration at cover cracking in RC structures based on the crack process. An attempt has been made to develop the model by considering material properties of the surrounding concrete and expansive corrosion products. The problem is established as a boundary-value problem and the governing equations are expressed in terms of the radial displacement. The analytical predictions of the proposed model have also been in agreement with the available experimental data.
227
Authors: Kyung Man Moon, Sung Yul Lee, Jae Hyun Jeong, Myeong Hoon Lee
Abstract: The reinforced concretes are often exposed to severely corrosive environments such as sea water, contaminated water, acid rain and seashore etc.. Therefore, the reinforced steel bar embedded in the concrete is increasingly corroded in various environments mentioned above, and this corrosion problem is thought to be very important in terms of the safety and economic points of view. In this study, a multiple mortar test specimen(W/C:0.5) with variation of coating thickness was prepared and immerged in flowing seawater for five years. And, the effects of coating thickness affecting to cathodic polarization and cyclic voltammogram were investigated using electrochemical methods. The thinner coating thickness, both invasion and diffusion of dissolved oxygen, water and chloride ion on the surface of reinforced steel bar is more easily compared to the thicker coating thickness. Thus, at the beginning of immersion, the rate of corrosion in the case of the thinner coating thickness is higher than that of the thicker coating thickness. However, it is considered that corrosion products deposited on the surface due to higher corrosion rate played the role as a resistance polarization, and increased the diffusion layer, as a result, decreased the corrosion current density compared to the thicker coating thickness. Consequently, the relationship between corrosion current density and the coating thickness were not well in good agreement with each other due to the corrosion products after being immersed for 5 years. Therefore, in order to more optimum evaluate for corrosion possibility of the reinforced steel embedded in the concrete, not only corrosion potential but also other parameters such as coating thickness, W/C ratio, and other corrosion environment should be investigated in the case of immersed in seawater for long years.
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Authors: Kun Lin Ma, Wei Lun Wang, Guang Cheng Long, You Jun Xie
Abstract: The deterioration mechanism of sulfate attack on cement- based materials under partial soaking condition is very complex. This paper investigated the surface morphology, microstructure and corrosion products in different zones of cement mortar under 5% sulfate solution partial soaking condition at 360 d by methods of SEM, EDS and XRD, respectively. Results show that under partial soaking condition, cement mortar are distinguished four zones – soaking zone, wet zone, crystallization zone and dry zone. Corrosion products in soaking zone and wet zone are predominantly ettringite, showing chemical corrosion take place in those zones. Corrosion products in crystallization zone are gypsum and crystals of Na2SO4 and Na2SO4.10H2O, showing both sulfate chemical corrosion in high concentration and physical crystallization attack occur in this zone. However, there is no any corrosion product founded in dry zone.
415
Authors: Xia Zhao, Shuan Liu, Bao Rong Hou
Abstract: Corrosion resistance of X52 pipeline steel at sea mud zone in Qingdao Huiquan test station was investigated by using Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphology and chemical composition of the corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that the corrosion current density of X52 pipeline steel increased with immersion time. The corrosion products were loose and mainly included Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and FeOCl, which absorbed on the specimen surface accelerating the cathodic depolarization reaction.
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Authors: Meng Liu, Jian Qiu Wang, Wei Ke
Abstract: The corrosion behavior of X52 pipeline steel in H2S solutions was investigated through immersion corrosion test which was carried out in a high temperature and high pressure autoclave at different temperatures and H2S concentrations. General corrosion rates were calculated based on the weight loss of samples. The morphology and the chemical composition of the corrosion products were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The crystal structure of corrosion products was analyzed by X-Ray diffraction patterns (XRD). The corrosion products consisted mainly of the sulfide compounds (mackinawite, cubic ferrous sulfide, troilite and pyrrhotite). The corrosion products included two layers: the inner iron-rich layer and the outer sulfur-rich layer. Under H2S concentrations of 27g/L, the corrosion rate increased with the increase of temperature up to 90°C and then decreased at 120°C, finaly increased again. The corrosion rate first increased with H2S concentrations then decreased at 120°C. The structure and stability of the corrosion products due to different corrosion mechanism had a major impact on the corrosion rate. The corrosion resistance of the corrosion products increased as follows: mackinawite < cubic ferrous sulfide < troilite < pyrrhotite.
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Authors: Rong Zhen Dong, Jun Wei, Xi Wu Zhou
Abstract: The rust distribution and the crack expansion in the deteriorated concrete were studied through the macroscopic and microcosmic method. The results show that the corrosion of steel bar in the concrete is non-uniform even though by Galvanostatic Method. The crack appears earlier and expands quicker at the thin concrete cover than others side and the short crack filled by the rust is found near by the steel bar and converges the main crack. The distribution, composition and the developing of the rust at steel-concrete interface were studied by the microscopic methods of BSE, EDAX and Raman Microscope. By these methods, the rust distributes inhomogeneous and the ion element area was divided into zones evidently. From concrete to steel bar, the rust in turn is: initial rust zone, the mixture area of the rust and mortar about 20-50 μm in width and main containing the goethite (FeOOH); the secondary rust zone, high density area of ion element and about 10-20μm in width and being the mixture of hematite(Fe2O3)and magnetite(Fe3O4); the final rust zone, similar as the initial rust and being the mixture of hematite(Fe2O3)and goethite(FeOOH). According to the electrochemistry principle, the forming process of rust does not follow the iron oxidation procedure entirely but form middle production under the special situation of the condition interior concrete and the electric field outside. The extrusion action of concrete around steel bar makes the rust compressed and metamorphic and the secondary rust forming. So the process and the final state of this special corrosion production are the key parameters leading to the deterioration of concrete.
215
Authors: Viorica Vasilache, Vasile Cotiugă, Ion Sandu, Tiberiu Theodor Plăcintă, Otilia Mircea
Abstract: The paper presents the chemical composition and mineralogical distribution of the corrosion crust, more so the chemical composition and the texture of the metallic core on three silver coins dating from the seventeenth century, discovered in various tombs in the necropolis belonging to the former Stratenia Church from Iasi. These were examined by the corroboration of optical microscopy, electron microscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction (SEM-EDX) and the micro-FTIR techniques. The data allowed to establish the main alloy and of the evolutionary contexts during the laying period, based on the texture of the metallic core and on the layout of corrosion products.
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