Papers by Keyword: Cryomilling

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Authors: Bin Hao, Ji Shan Zhang, Da Cheng Liu
Abstract: In the present investigation, the composite powder with 20wt.% particulate B4C and 80wt.% nanocrystalline 5083 Al was fabricated using mechanically milling at cryogenic temperature (cryomilling). After this, the cryomilled composite powder was homogeneously blended with an equal amount of unmilled coarse-grained 5083 Al. The blended powder was consolidated with hot-pressing at 500°C, followed by hot extrusion at 410°C. The consolidated composite consists of 10wt.% B4C, 50wt.% coarse grain 5083 Al and the balance nanocrystalline 5083 Al. The microstructure evolution of the composite during cryomilling and consolidation was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the particle size of the cryomilled composite powder became smaller and then bigger with milling time longer. This demonstrates the course rely mainly on broken first, and then rely mainly on cold welding with milling time longer. B4C particles can be distributed in 5083 Al matrix uniformly. In addition, the presence of oxygen and nitrogen in cryomilled powders has been demonstrated in this paper.
Authors: Jiong Li Li, Sha Sha Li, Yan Cai Xiong
Abstract: The operation with a combination of three processing routes: cryomilling, hot isostatic pressing (HIPping) and hot extrusion was adopted in the present study for preparation of the bulk nanocrystalline Al 7050. The microstructure and fractography of the bulk material were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Furthermore, the chemical composition, density and tensile properties of the material were also measured. Microstructural investigation showed that the grain size of the bulk nanocrystalline Al 7050 ranged from 100nm to 200nm. Numerous dispersoids with a diameter/length of ~50nm were observed on grain boundaries and inside the grains. Besides, one phase of these dispersoids existed in the bulk nanocrystalline Al 7050 was identified as Al6(FeMn). These dispersoids dispersed within the bulk nanocrystalline Al 7050, to some extent, increased the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the material. The resulted sample exhibited ultimate strength of 412MPa with an elongation of 5.2% when tested under tensile load, which was a bit lower than that of the traditionally wrought Al 7050-T6. The present results suggested that improper selected starting powder and milling parameters resulted in the flake-like morphology of the cryomilled powder. The flake-like morphology made it difficult for the cryomilled powder to fill the can entirely and achieve a high density material, which led to the weak interface within the bulk material and in turn degraded the mechanical properties of the bulk nanocrystalline Al 7050 prepared in the present work.
Authors: M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu, Emre Tekoğlu, Sıddıka Mertdinç, Duygu Ağaoğulları
Abstract: In this study, microstructural and mechanical properties of a Al-5 wt.% Si/2 wt% (NbB2, NbC) composite synthesized by sequentially milling (mechanical alloying (MA) and/or cryogenic milling (CM)) were investigated. Nb2O5, B2O3 and C powder blends were milled using high energy milling for 5 h and annealed at 1400 oC for 12 h to produce NbB2-NbC hybrid powders. The NbB2-NbC hybrid powders were mixed with the matrix Al-5 wt.% Si powders to constitute the Al-5 wt.% Si/2 wt.% (NbB2-NbC) powders blends which were mechanically alloyed (MA'd) for 4 h using SpexTM Mixer/Mill, cryo-milled for 10 min in a SpexTM 6870 Freezer/Mill and finally MA’d for 1h in SpexTM Mixer/Mill again. As-blended, MA’d and cryomilled powders were compacted in a hydraulic press with a uniaxial pressure of 450 MPa. Compacted samples were sintered at 570°C for 2 h under Ar gas atmosphere. Microstructural characterizations of the as-blended/MA'd powders and the sintered composites were performed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Density and microhardness measurements and sliding wear tests were performed on the sintered composite samples. Sequentially milled and sintered Al-5 wt.% Si-2 wt.% (NbB2-NbC) samples had the highest mean microhardness value (2.29 ± 24.98 GPa) and the lowest wear volume loss (0.038 mm3).
Authors: Qing Hou, Zhi Cheng Shi, Run Hua Fan, Li Cheng Ju
Abstract: Al/Fe2O3 thermite powders were prepared by cryomilling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The cryogenic temperature will restrain the mechanochemical reaction between alumina and iron oxide, leading to high reactivitive nanoscale powders. The size distribution of the powders was analyzed using laser particle size analyzer, and cryomilling was proved to be an effective method to prepare ultrafine powders. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that the cryomilled powders get more fully-reacted, a larger proportion of solid-solid reaction and more heat release in the solid-liquid reaction, comparing with the powders milled at room temperaure. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics of Al-Fe2O3 system is analyzed by a model-free Starink method. The activation energy for solid-solid reaction of 2Al-Fe2O3 thermite mixture cryomilled for 40 min is determined as 250 kJ/mol. The alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) analysis shows that long time milling evoked the thermit reaction between Al and Fe2O3, leading to the increase in saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanent magnetization (Mr).
Authors: Li Ying Tang, Fei Chen, Xin Zhang, Chun Ming Zhang, Qiang Shen, Lian Meng Zhang
Abstract: Boron (B) has great potential to be the primary fuel in energetic systems for its high heating values per unit volume and mass. The existence of B2O3 layer on its surface holding the combustion of B back has limited its extensive utilization. Adding magnesium (Mg) into B can improve its poor combustion performance according to the previous research. A new technique, cryomilling, was employed to prepare Mg and B (Mg/B) composite powders. The powders were cryomilled with a ball-to-powder ratio (BPR) of 80: 1(w/w) and an impeller rotation speed of 400 rpm, 500 rpm and 600 rpm. The cryomilling time is 5 h, 6 h and 7 h. A small amount of ferrum (Fe) is introduced into the powders in spite that the main phases are Mg and B. The effects of cryomilling parameters, such as cryomilling time and rotation speed on Mg/B composite powders were investigated. The results show the amount of active Mg and B is over 80%. The bonding mechanism during the process is analogous to mechanical alloy.
Authors: Qing Hou, Run Hua Fan, Zi Dong Zhang, Ke Lan Yan, Chuan Bing Cheng, Min Chen, Kai Sun, Gui Fang Liu, Pei Tao Xie
Abstract: The microstructure and dielectric properties of the graphene–epoxy composites prepared by cryomilling at liquid nitrogen temperature were studied by SEM and RF impedance material analyzer. The result indicated that both the dielectric constant and conductivity of the composites increased with the increase of the graphene content. The value of the dielectric constant of the composite with about 8 wt % of graphene was as high as 200. Moreover, the frequency dispersion behaviors of the conductivity within a certain frequency range accorded with the Jonscher's power law demonstrating that the conductive mechanism is hopping conduction. The negative reactance decreased with the increase of the testing frequency which indicated a capacitive character
Authors: Ka Ka Ma, Julie M. Schoenung
Abstract: Improved thermal cycling lifetime has been observed in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with cryomilled NiCrAlY bond coat. To understand this improved behavior, a robust experimental investigation is coupled with mechanistic explanations to describe the influence of cryomilling on microstructure, phase stability and oxidation behavior of the bond coat. It is found that cryomilling results in two significant changes in the NiCrAlY bond coat: unintentional Fe additions and creation of a homogeneous distribution of ultrafine oxide/nitride dispersoids. Through extensive microstructural analysis combined with computational simulation using Thermo-Calc® software, it is determined that the presence of Fe stabilizes the high temperature γ and β phases in the NiCrAlY bond coat, corresponding to a decrease in the transformation temperature. The results are explained on the basis of the Gibbs free energy for the individual phases. Characterization of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) in TBCs after isothermal oxidation with rigorous statistical evaluation indicates that the TGOs in the TBCs with the cryomilled bond coats are more uniform in thickness and slower growing. Both behaviors are attributed to the more homogeneous distribution of oxide dispersoids, which are a direct result of the cryomilling, yet remain stable after extensive thermal exposure.
Authors: Kyung H. Chung, Jong Sang Lee, Rodolfo-Martín Rodriguez, Dong Hyuk Shin, Enrique J. Lavernia
Authors: Heronilton Mendes de Lira, Pilar Rey Rodriguez, Oscar Olimpio de Araújo Filho, Cezar Henrique Gonzalez, Severino Leopoldino Urtiga Filho
Abstract: High performance nanostructured light metals and alloys are very interesting for replacing conventional heavier materials in many industrial components. High Energy Ball Milling and Cryomilling are useful techniques to obtain nanocrystalline powders. In this work the effect of several milling conditions such as rotation speed, time, ball to powder ratio and temperature on the crystallite and particle size and morphology in pure aluminum are presented. X-Ray Diffraction, Laser Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy are used. High energy ball milling at ambient and cryogenic temperature of Al powders rapidly leads to a nanometer size down to about 35 nm. High ball to powder ratio promotes both low crystallite and particle size. Small crystallite size like 18 nm and particle size as 4 μm were achieved in the most energetic conditions at ambient temperature. Isopropyl alcohol used as liquid media and protective atmosphere has a strong influence on the results depending on the milling temperature of Al.
Authors: Qi Wan, Ping Li, Teng Wang, Xuan Hui Qu
Abstract: Two kinds of novel materials, Mg-1.6mol%Ni-0.4mol%NiO-2mol%MF (MF=NbF5, CrF3), along with Mg-1.6mol%Ni-0.4mol%NiO for comparison, were examined for their potential use in hydrogen storage applications, having been fabricated via cryomilling. The effects of NbF5 and CrF3 on hydrogen storage performance were investigated. A microstructure analysis showed that, aside from the main phase Mg, Ni and NiO phases, NbO, MgF2 and Mg2Ni were present in all samples after ball milling, MgH2 and NbH2 were observed in all samples after absorption. The CrF3-containing composite exhibited a good PCT results and a low onset desorption temperature under 0.1 MPa. The NbF5-containing composite exhibited a low absorption temperature of 323 K, a high hydrogen storage capacity of 4.03wt% at 373 K under the hydrogen pressure of 4.0 MPa, and it absorbed 90% of its full hydrogen capacity in 2700 sec and 100% in 5100 sec, it desorbed more than 1.8wt% in 3600 sec under vacuum environment. The CrF3-doped sample exhibited a low onset desorption temperature of 543 K under 0.1 MPa, and a low hysteresis coefficient of 0.25 at 573 K, and lower than 0.2 when temperature was 623 K. NbO and NbH2 played an important role in improving the absorption and desorption performance.
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