Papers by Keyword: Earth Construction

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Authors: M.A.P. Rezende, R.C. Alves, E.V.M. Carrasco, J.N.R. Mantilla, M.A. Smits, V.D. Pizzol, P.V. Krüger
Abstract: This article presents and discusses an adobe production with shows a clay/silt/sand proportion that is completely different from that recommended by most authors and construction associations. The main objective was to improve comprehension of earth behaviors as building material by studying these two atypical cases of adobe production. The soil was analyzed by different tests as the grain size distribution test and Atterberg limits. Adobe resistance was tested using a methodology proposed by Proterra network which was created by a group of researchers from different Iberian American laboratories. This methodology was used in Ph.D. thesis, too. The results show a soil with 1% clay and 65.1 silte and an average of resistance of 2.11 MPa for the adobes. These results show the importance of the clay mineral structure and the complexity of the soil behavior, indicating the need for additional studies.
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Authors: Christopher J. Whitman
Abstract: According to the latest official census of 2002, earth construction represented 5.5% of the Chilean building stock. These buildings of traditional construction techniques of unfired earth and straw blocks (adobe), rammed earth (tapial) or wattle and daub (quincha) form a large proportion of Chile’s National Monuments and heritage buildings. In addition to their heritage value, these buildings with their high thermal mass, respond well to the climate conditions of both the altiplano of northern Chile and the Central Valley, zones with high diurnal temperature oscillations, with typical daily temperature differences of up to 20°C. However following the 2005 earthquake in Tarapacá, northern Chile and that of the 27th February 2010 in Central Chile a serious rethink has been required as to the retention and restoration of adobe buildings. Public opinion has labelled earth construction as unsafe and most reconstruction to date has taken place with prefabricated timber solutions which lack the necessary thermal mass to respond well to the climatic conditions. At the same time research into the structural integrity, seismic resistance, maintenance and the living conditions provided by earth construction has been undertaken. In this wider context this paper presents the compilation of international and Chilean research into the hygrothermal properties of adobe construction, in addition to the authors insitu measurements of the temperature and relative humidity in two surviving adobe dwellings in the earthquake hit village of Chépica located in Chile´s Central valley. These measurements are compared with those of a dwelling rebuilt with straw bales and earth render in the same location. Based on this information the paper studies the challenge of rebuilding and restoring heritage buildings whilst providing occupants with the necessary levels of environmental comfort.
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Authors: Ibtissam Kourdou, Toufik Cherradi
Abstract: Following the floods of November 2014, several southern regions of Morocco have experienced major losses and damage in particular materials.Among these areas we find the ancient city of Tiznit that lost several of its earth constructions.The particularity of this Medina is the ranking of its built heritage as a national heritage and this since 1932. Given the extent of damage caused by the rains on the Medina, an intervention is necessary in order to preserve what remains of the Earth Heritage. It is in this context that fits this work and which aims to make a technical diagnosis on the state of Medina in order to present an action plan which aims primarily the restoration of this wealth, and therefore the preservation of heritage buildings.
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