Papers by Keyword: Electroluminescence

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Authors: J. Vacas, H. Lahrèche, Teresa Monteiro, C. Gaspar, Eduarda Pereira, Christian Brylinski, M.A. di Forte-Poisson
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Authors: Kevin M. Speer, David J. Spry, Andrew J. Trunek, Philip G. Neudeck, M.A. Crimp, J.T. Hile, C. Burda, P. Pirouz
Abstract: pn diodes have recently been fabricated from 3C-SiC material heteroepitaxially grown atop on-axis 4H-SiC mesa substrate arrays [1,2]. Using an optical emission microscope (OEM), we have investigated these diodes under forward bias, particularly including defective 3C-SiC films with in-grown stacking faults (SFs) nucleated on 4H-SiC mesas with steps from screw dislocations. Bright linear features are observed along <110> directions in electroluminescence (EL) images. These features have been further investigated using electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) [3]. The general characteristics of the ECCI images—together with the bright to dark contrast reversal with variations of the excitation error—strongly suggest that the bright linear features are partial dislocations bounding triangular SFs in the 3C-SiC films. However, unlike partial dislocations in 4H-SiC diodes whose recombination-enhanced dislocation motion serves to expand SF regions, all the partial dislocations we observed during the electrical stressing were immobile across a wide range of current injection levels (1 to 1000 A/cm2).
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Authors: L. Heikkilä, T. Kuusela, H.-P. Hedman, A. Pavlov, H. Ihantola
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Authors: James C. Sung, Ming Chi Kan, Shao Chung Hu
Abstract: Amorphous diamond can emit electrons in vacuum when applied with an electrical field of only a few volts per micron. It is also extremely thermionic so the emitted current can increase millions times when heated to only a few hundreds degrees centigrade. As a result, amorphous diamond can be a thermal generator or a solar cell. The energy conversion efficiency can have much higher (e.g. 50%) than that (e.g. 15%) of silicon based solar cells that can absorb only a narrow spectrum of sun light. As a solar cell, amorphous diamond has another advantage that its radiation hardness is the highest of all materials, hence, its thermal electricity efficiency will not attenuate as does the solar cell based on photo electric semiconductorls. An immediate application of amorphous diamond is to coat it on electron emitting electrodes, such as that used as cold cathode fluorescence lamps (CCFL) that illuminate liquid crystal displays (LCD) for fornote books and television sets. Amorphous diamond can dramatically reduce the turn-on voltage to lit CCFL so the lamp life can be greatly extended. Moreover, the electrical current can be increased to enhance the brightness of the light.
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Authors: Bernhard Schwartz, Philipp Saring, Tzanimir Arguirov, Michael Oehme, Konrad Kostecki, Erich Kasper, Joerg Schulze, Martin Kittler
Abstract: We analyzed multi quantum well light emitting diodes, consisting of ten alternating GeSn/Ge-layers, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si. The Ge barriers were 10 nm thick and the GeSn wells were grown with 7% Sn and thicknesses between 6 and 12 nm. Despite the high threading dislocation density of 109 to 1010 cm−2 the electroluminescence spectra measured at 300 and 80 K yield a broad and intensive luminescence band. Deconvolution revealed three major lines produced by the GeSn wells that can be interpreted in terms of quantum confinement. Biaxial compressive strain causes a splitting of light and heavy holes in the GeSn wells. We interpret the three lines to represent two direct lines, formed by transitions with the light and heavy hole band, respectively, andan indirect line.
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Authors: Mohd Arif Mohd Sarjidan, Siti Hajar Basri, W.H. Abd Majid
Abstract: This research work investigates the influence of the annealing process upon the performance of photo-emissive layer of organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The photo-emissive layer consists of a ternary blend of N, N-diphenyl-N,N-bis (3-methylphenyl)-(1,1-biphenyl)-4,4-diamine (TPD), 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) and tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3), to produce TPD:PBD:Alq3 (at 1:1:1 ratio) blend thin films, in which the material solutions are deposited onto clean substrate via spin-coating method. The samples were annealed at 100°C in 10, 20 and 30 minute of time in an open-air condition. The results reveal that the annealing process at 10 minutes produces an optimum performance of the ternary OLED.
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Authors: Lubomir Skvarenina, Robert Macků
Abstract: The research is aimed to the investigation of the microstructure defects in the silicon and the thin-film CIGS solar cells. These defects have their origin mainly in the technological process of a production but they can be caused by an accidental mechanical stress during a normal operation, too. That leads to a formation of the micro-cracks and the fractures, which have a significant effect on a device efficiency and reliability. The reverse-bias conditions are usually used for the defects charac- terization purposes. The mechanical induced defects increase a reverse current which leads to a strong overheating in the local breakdowns and the surroundings areas, thus for the defects localization pur- poses an infrared imaging and an electroluminescence method is used. Beyond these commonly used methods the results from the electrical current noise fluctuations observed in a frequency domain are presented in this work. The noise fluctuations measurement is a reliable indicator of a device quality and allow us to qualify the device damage extent. Using combination of these methods it is possible to localize the particular defects, assess the degree of a damage and classify the elimination process of the particular defects.
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Authors: Gang Cheng, Zengqi Xie, Ying Fang Zhang, Yuguang Ma, Shi Yong Liu
Abstract: A novel derivative of oligo(phenylenvinylene) (OPV), 2,5-diphenyl -1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds (trans-DPDSB), is used as a blue emitting material in blue and white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Blue devices with a configuration of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/N,N´-diphenyl-N,N´-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1´-biphenyl)-4,4´-diamine (NPB)/ trans-DPDSB / tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/LiF/Al are constructed, where NPB, Alq3 and trans-DPDSB are used as hole-transporting, electron-transporting and light-emitting layers, respectively. The color of emission is changed from blue-green to pure blue when the trans-DPDSB layer is thicker. By inserting an ultrathin 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) yellow light-emitting layer between the Alq3 and trans-DPDSB layers, white OLEDs are obtained. The maximum efficiency and luminance of the blue and white devices are 1.2, 3.0 cd/A, and 1400, 7000 cd/m2, respectively.
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Authors: Kouichi Akahane, Naokatsu Yamamoto, Tetsuya Kawanishi
Abstract: We have developed a growth procedure for increasing the number of stacked layers of InAs quantum dots (QDs) on an InP(311)B substrate that is resistant to defects and dislocations. In this work, we also developed a modulated stacking structure consisting of various size QDs for electroluminescence (EL). This promotes broad-band emission because each QD-distributed wide range can emit a different wavelength. The EL spectrum of this sample was measured with pulsed current injection. There was a strong emission from the ground state at approximately 1524 nm which is suitable for fiber-optic communications, with an injection current of 100 mA at room temperature. The full width at half maximum was 213 nm. Modulated stacking using this strain-compensation technique is thus a useful way to expand the gain wavelength.
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Authors: Mariusz Płuska, Andrzej Czerwiński, Jacek Ratajczak, Anna Szerling, Jerzy Kątcki
Abstract: Cathodoluminescence (CL) in SEM and electroluminescence (EL) techniques are widely used for investigation of optical properties of electronic structures. It is assumed that the CL signal represents the local properties of the region irradiated by the electron beam. However, this assumption is true if there is no electric field in the excitation region. In the opposite case the electron-hole pairs generated by the electron beam are separated by the electric field and the local voltage source is generated. The voltage is distributed all over the structure through resistance paths and it causes a current flow, which presence affects the registered CL signal. A range of this effect depends on the resistance distribution within the structure and on the value of electron beam current. The range may be much longer than the diffusion length of minority carriers. When EL signal is measured in SEM, it represents the mean properties of the whole structure. The comparison of the CL results with the EL ones detected in SEM gives valuable information about the examined structures, as will be shown in the present investigations. The AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with 8 nm InGaAs quantum well have been examined. For that aim also special test structures for CL and EL measurements have been formed on standard epitaxial structures.
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