Papers by Keyword: Embossing

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Authors: Zhi Kai Huang, Xing Wang Zhang, Wei Zhong Zhang, Ling Ying Hou
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new embossing algorithm for gray images using Kalman filter. First, a 2D gray image is first converted to a one dimension vector; those vectors could be considered as a one-dimension discrete-time signal. Then, the performance of image filtering using Kalman filter for image is studied and according to its results, Canny edge detection operators are investigated to find edge map in a gray scale image. Finally, enhance contrast using histogram equalization has been applied. Compared with other conventional embossing method for images, it is an impressive experimental result using our proposed algorithm for gray image embossing. Practical results show that this algorithm can be exploited in different fields such as image pattern recognition.
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Authors: Takahiro Ohashi, Hamed Mofidi Tabatabaei, Tadashi Nishihara
Abstract: This paper reports friction-stir forming (FSF) of cylindrical pin embossments on JIS A5083 aluminum alloy medium gauge plate. A substrate material was put on an emboss die and conducted friction stirring on its back surface. The die has 1mm diameter and 0.5mm deep fine holes at 1.5mm pitch on its top, and the material successfully filled them due to high pressure and heat caused by friction stirring. Three tools having different shoulder diameter were utilized to investigate the deformable area with a single pass. As a consequence, faster spindle speed, slower tool feed rate, and larger tool shoulder contribute to a wider range of completely formed pins. Extrusion of the material to the die cavity seemed to be mostly limited under the area of the shoulder. The ratios of the band width of the complete pins to the shoulder diameter were increased with the larger diameter of the shoulder of the FSF tool. Therefore, a larger shoulder was more effective for wide-range embossing with a single pass. In addition, we evaluated the shape of formed pins with a non-contact 3D measurement system. Accuracy of the height of the completely formed pins was within ±0.013mm, which was comparable with machining.
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Authors: Adam Szurdak, Andreas Rosenkranz, Carsten Gachot, Gerhard Hirt, Frank Mücklich
Abstract: Friction and wear of lubricated machine elements can be reduced by the introduction of lubrication pockets produced by surface texturing. Different manufacturing methods can be taken into consideration whereas a forming process offers the possibility for mass production. Hot micro coining is a forming process, which allows manufacturing of surface textures with different shapes and dimensions into a flat and deformable material, e.g. seals made of steel. In this work hemispherical and ellipsoid pockets with a maximum depth of 100 µm have been embossed into stainless steel (AISI 304). To ensure that the used process parameters will not lead to tool damage, Finite Element simulations were performed and experimentally verified. First tribological experiments were conducted on a ball-on-disk tribometer in order to study the tribological properties of hemispherical structures with pockets depths of 50 and 100 µm. Different sliding velocities were applied to study the coefficient of friction and wear volume for different lubrication conditions. A comparison between coined and not‑coined specimens demonstrates that the micro coined surface textures lead to a significant reduction in the wear volume at boundary and mixed lubrication conditions.
417
Authors: Bernd Arno Behrens, Richard Krimm, Jan Jocker, Eduard Reithmeier, Bernhard Roth, Maik Rahlves
Abstract: Holograms are industrially used as decorative design elements to increase the value of products. As they are hard to copy, holograms are also used for brand protection and product identification. The state-of-the-art is to emboss holograms in the surface of polymeric foils and to apply them to products by adhesive bonding. Examples are holograms on credit cards, banknotes or identification cards. In this paper, a new method to emboss holograms in the surface of sheet metals is presented. By this, parts made of sheet metal such as decorative interior parts of cars, battery housings or packaging of cosmetic products can be equipped with holograms during their production process. Hence, adhesive bonding and the required additional handling operations are not necessary. An embossing tool and the results of experimental hologram embossing are described. Aluminium Al99.9, aluminium-magnesium alloy AW-5505, copper and zinc-coated deep drawing steel DC05 were used as sheet metals to be embossed. Furthermore, a new method and a device to produce master holograms are presented. Master holograms are required to produce embossing dies with the hologram on its surface (referred to as shim). The device is based on a laser light source and a spatial light modulator (SLM). With help of the SLM, simultaneous transfer of 1920 x 1080 pixels of a Computer Generated Holograms (CGH) topography to a plate coated with photoresist is possible. Compared to todays industrial mastering of holograms which is done pixel by pixel, the time required for the process is much shorter. In addition, investment costs are lower compared to currently used electron-beam-lithography devices.
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Authors: Nikolaj Gadegaard, Matthew J. Dalby, Elena Martines, Kris Seunarine, Mathis O. Riehle, Adam S.G. Curtis, Chris D.W. Wilkinson
Abstract: Bionanotechnology has seen much interest in the past few years. The development in new nanotechnologies and the transfer of such to biomedical applications has been received with large expectations. Here we will describe some of the most common techniques to prepare surfaces with nanometric sized features and how they have been applied to control cell behavior. The focus, however, will be on electron beam lithography and its use in biological applications. We will show that such highly ordered surfaces exhibit low adhesive properties for cells. Also, such topographies change the wetting properties to be either more hydrophilic or hydrophobic depending on the surface energy of the flat surface. Today, little research has found its way to the commercial market. This is mainly down to the ability to make large areas or large quantities of nano patterned materials. We will describe a few methods by which we think it would be possible to mass produce nano topographically patterned surfaces.
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Authors: Consorcio S. Namoco Jr, Takashi Iizuka, Nobuo Hatanaka, Norio Takakura, Katsuhiko Yamaguchi
Abstract: In this study, numerical simulations of flexural tests of sheet metals subjected to embossing and restoration process are carried out using LS-DYNA3D. Several models are created varying the number, position, and pitch of the emboss or restoration points. The emboss height and sheet thickness are also varied. Results show that improvement in rigidity of sheet metals can be optimized by taking into considerations several parameters as discussed in this paper.
377
Authors: Camelia Neagu-Cogălniceanu, Irinel Neagu-Cogălniceanu
Abstract: Over the past years the target for waste recovery/ recycling has significantly increased in Romania, in according with the EU Directives. Nowadays, the competitive contexts of the current market lead the manufacturers to obtain novel and custom-made products using new technologies and quality raw materials. Such resources can be consisting of low-cost waste/by-products and in the processes of converting them into value-added products. On the other hand, the necessity for recycling waste is important under the strict European legislation. Regarding glass, the key sources of waste are container/ packaging glass, flat glass, electric and electronic equipments, domestic glass, E-glass, etc. According with source, waste glass can be: pre-and post-consumer waste glass. Now many recycling processes have been studied, developed and applied in industry. The major challenge is represented by creating of innovative and sustainable technologies and making it suitable. But recycling of glass is technologically more complicated than other waste (for example: paper). In case of glass, the most sustainable route is to use it for re-melting processes and obtaining a new glass. Glass is 100% recyclable but not all waste/cullet can be used for the manufacturing of any type of glass, due different chemical composition and the prohibitive shipping costs from collection points to glass factory. In this study, authors paid attention to the recycling process of soda-lime glass (post-industrial flat glass) and proposed the thermal embossing technique of glass, using glass slumping process, in order to obtain decorative products with aesthetic impact and functional role. An input image is prepared by applying different enhancement techniques, adjusting contrast, transferring into grayscale image in 256 shades of gray. The result image is transferred in Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) software to refine the surface geometries and to obtain with rapid tooling the mould for glass. The method used for tooling fabrication consists of machining a block of suitable material with a Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machine which is known as a subtractive method. The next stage consists in applying of the heat treatment, using an electrical furnace. The major advantages of the embossing method for converting waste glass in value-added products is represented in the fact of use reduced energy comparing with the classic route of re-melting, possibility of obtaining bespoke products, ready to use in architectural and decorative fields. In addition, environmental benefits that results from processing waste glass are the reducing the raw materials (virgin) and the CO2 emissions.
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