Papers by Keyword: Focused Ion Beam (FIB)

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Authors: Petr Král, Jiří Dluhoš, Pavel Peřina, Tomáš Barták
Abstract: Experiments were conducted to determine microstructure changes occurring during thermal exposure in metals processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). The ECAP pressing was performed at room temperature by route Bc. Static annealing and constant load creep tests in tension were conducted at 0.3-0.5 Tm. The microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscope combined with focus ion beam - TESCAN LYRA 3 equipped with electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD). It was found that creep behaviour is influenced by synergetic effect of additional creep mechanisms like grain boundary sliding, more intensive diffusion processes or recrystallization.
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Authors: Michael Ferry, Wan Qiang Xu, M. Zakaria Quadir, Nasima Afrin Zinnia, Kevin J. Laws, Nora Mateescu, Lalu Robin, Lori Bassman, Julie M. Cairney, John F. Humphreys, Adeline Albou, Julian H. Driver
Abstract: A focused ion beam (FIB) coupled with high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has emerged as a useful tool for generating crystallographic information in reasonably large volumes of microstructure. In principle, data generation is reasonably straightforward whereby the FIB is used as a high precision serial sectioning device for generating consecutive milled surfaces suitable for mapping by EBSD. The successive EBSD maps generated by serial sectioning are combined using various post-processing methods to generate crystallographic volumes of the microstructure. This paper provides an overview of the use of 3D-EBSD in the study of various phenomena associated with thermomechanical processing of both crystalline and semi-crystalline alloys and includes investigations on the crystallographic nature of microbands, void formation at particles, phase redistribution during plastic forming, and nucleation of recrystallization within various regions of the deformation microstructure.
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Authors: Q. Humayun, U. Hashim
Abstract: Fabrication techniques for Metal-molecule-metal junction electrodes suitable to study electron tunneling through metal junctions are reviewed. The applications of current technologies such as mechanical break junction, electromigration, shadow mask lithography, focused ion beam deposition, chemical and electrochemical plating, electron-beam lithography, in fabricating vacant junction electrodes are briefly described. For biomolecular sensing applications, the size of the junction electrodes must be small enough to allow the biomolecule inserted into the junction space to connect both leads to keep the molecules in a relaxed and undistorted state. A significant advantage of using Metal-molecule-metal junction electrodes devices is that the junction can be characterized with and without the molecule in place. Any electrical artifacts introduced by the electrode fabrication process are more easily deconvoluted from the intrinsic properties of the molecule.
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Authors: Fabio Sorbello, Peter E.J. Flewitt, A.G. Crocker, Gillian E. Smith
Abstract: It is well established that within the lower-shelf temperature range of Fe2-3Si polycrystalline steels, the brittle fracture occurs predominately by transgranular cleavage, unless subject to embrittling heat-treatments. The cleavage fracture develops on the well established {001} planes of the bcc structure. In this paper we revisit the growth, of these cleavage cracks by considering crack propagation in single crystals of Fe2Si steel. Three point bend specimens manufactured from oriented crystals have been tested by impact loading at a temperature of -196°C. High spatial resolution focused ion beam imaging combined with ion milling is used to examine in detail the crack propagation path and has provided a new insight into the mechanisms involved. In particular it has been established that within the process zone of the propagating cracks local strain is accommodated by the formation of {112} twins. The results are discussed with respect to the overall crack propagation mechanism.
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Authors: Yi Qing Chen, Feng Zai Tang, Liang Chi Zhang
Abstract: This paper reports the specimen preparation using an advanced dual beam focused ion beam (FIB) technique for bulk polycrystalline diamond (PCD) composites after dynamic friction polishing (DFP). The technique adapted allows for precisely processing diamond materials at the specific polishing track sites of PCD surface, from which large cross-sectional specimens for SEM/EDS/Raman microanalysis could be successfully created. In addition, an in-situ lift-out method was developed to prepare the site-specific HRTEM specimens which were thin enough for imaging the atomic lattice of diamond and for conducting EELS analysis.
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Authors: Jiří Man, Miroslav Valtr, Ivo Kuběna, Martin Petrenec, Karel Obrtlík, Jaroslav Polák
Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and focused ion beam technique (FIB) were adopted to study the early stages of surface relief evolution in 316L steel and polycrystalline copper fatigued with constant plastic strain amplitudes at different temperatures (316L steel at 93, 173 and 573 K; copper at 83, 173 and 295 K). Qualitative and quantitative data on the morphology and shape of persistent slip markings (PSMs), occurrence of extrusions and intrusions and the kinetics of extrusion growth are reported. They are discussed in relation with recent physically based theories of surface relief formation leading to fatigue crack initiation.
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Authors: Kee Hyun Kim, Benny van Daele, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Yong Sug Chung, Jong Kyu Yoon
Abstract: A hot dip aluminising process was carried out with a 1mm steel sheet dipped into the Al-10at.% Si melt in an automatic hot-dip simulator. When steel and liquid aluminium are in contact with each other, a thin intermetallic compound (IMC) is formed between the steel and the aluminium. The analysis and identification of the formation mechanism of the IMC is needed to manufacture the application products. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are normally used to identify the phases of IMC. In the Al-Fe-Si system, numerous compounds with only slight differences in composition are formed. Consequently, EDX and EPMA are insufficient to confirm exactly the thin IMC with multiphases. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis combined with EDX was used. The TEM sample was prepared with focused ion beam (FIB) sampling. The FIB lift-out technology is used to slice a very thin specimen with minimum contamination for TEM analysis. It is clearly shown that the IMC consists of Al-27 at. % Fe-10 at. % Si and is identified as Al8Fe2Si with a hexagonal unit cell (space group P63/mmc). The cell parameters are a= 1.2404nm and c= 2.6234nm.
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Authors: Wan Qiang Xu, Michael Ferry, Julie M. Cairney, John F. Humphreys
Abstract: A typical dual-beam platform combines a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM). Using FIB-FEGSEM, it is possible to sequentially mill away > ~ 50 nm sections of a material by FIB and characterize, at high resolution, the crystallographic features of each new surface by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The successive images can be combined to generate 3D crystallographic maps of the microstructure. A useful technique is described for FIB milling that allows the reliable reconstruction of 3D microstructures using EBSD. This serial sectioning technique was used to investigate the recrystallization behaviour of a particle-containing nickel alloy, which revealed a number of features of the recrystallizing grains that are not clearly evident in 2D EBSD micrographs such as clear evidence of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) and twin formation and growth during PSN.
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Authors: N. Atiqah, I.H. Jaafar, Mohammad Yeakub Ali, B. Asfana
Abstract: Fabrication of micro and nanoscale components are in high demand for various applications in diversified fields that include automotive, electronics, communication and medicine. Focused ion beam (FIB) machining is one of the techniques for microfabrication of micro devices. This paper presents a review of FIB machining technology that include its parameter, responses, its important component systems, as well as the fundamentals of imaging, milling (etching) and deposition techniques. The application of FIB in micromachining is also presented.
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Authors: L. Bischoff, J. Teichert
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