Papers by Keyword: Grain Refinement

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Authors: David H. St. John, Mark A. Easton, Peng Cao, Michael Bermingham, Ma Qian
Abstract: The development of grain refinement technologies began in the 1930s in response to the need to improve the mechanical properties of as-cast components. Commercial grain refining technologies were developed by industrial and experimental trials often with good success including the production of effective master alloys. In parallel, researchers developed theories to explain the mechanisms of refinement in order to improve the efficiency of refiners and develop new better performing grain refining master alloys. This research continues today. Here we briefly present the history of these developments. It is shown that many developments in our understanding were based on assumptions arising from experimental and industrial observations and the prevailing solidification theories of the time.
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Authors: D.G. Mallapur, D.G. Sondur, K.R. Udupa
Abstract: In the present work, a comparative study on the wear behavior of cast aged and forge aged A356 alloy has been investigated without and with the addition of grain refiner and modifier, under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc wear testing machine. The comparison study reveals that tribological properties of A356 materials are highly influenced by T6 heat treatment process. It is found in the present study that, cast aged A356 materials possess higher wear resistance as compared to forge aged materials. Apart from this, the study also reveals that cast aged material is associated with lower frictional forces and coefficient of friction as compared to the forge aged category. It is further observed in the present investigation that abrasive wear mechanism is operative in both the categories of the materials when tested with lower load for lower sliding speed and lower distance of run. At higher values of external parameters the adhesive wear mechanism dominates the wear process. Lower values of wear properties recorded by the forge aged material are an unexpected result in the present studies. It is conceived to be due to the presence of micro cracks while forging.
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Authors: Reza Haghayeghi, Plato Kapranos
Abstract: There has been a great debate whether grain refinement is more effective when shearing above or below the liquidus. In this work, examination of the microstructural evolution in AA7075 alloy has been performed, after stirring above & below the liquidus. The results suggest that shearing above the liquidus is more effective. The outcomes indicate that at temperatures below the liquidus, the convective forces produced by electromagnetic forces cannot break the dendrites due to low velocities, whilst at shearing above the liquidus through a cavitation-enhanced nucleation mechanism grain refinement is promoted. It appears that by applying magnetic forces above the liquidus temperature, shearing effects result in finer grain sizes and consequent enhancement of properties. Keywords: Electromagnetic Casting, Grain Refinement, Cavitation Mechanism
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Authors: Xiang Wang, Tong Zhao, Di Tie, Ren Guo Guan
Abstract: A novel process for grain refining and manufacture of high quality semisolid slurries ofalloys was developed. The process was proven to refine metal grain remarkably, and the grain sizeof pure aluminum can be refined to the first grade of Chinese refining standard of pure aluminumGB/T 7946.4-1999 ref) . P rimary silicon and eutectic silicon in the hypereutectic Al-Si alloy can bealso effectively refined. This process was used to prepare the billets with small spherical grains orequiaxed grains of Al-6Si-2Mg, AZ91, AZ31 and hypereutectic Al-Si alloys successfully. The p ip es ,profi le s and wire s of 6201, AZ31 and AZ61 alloys were produced by continuous rheo-extrusion.The strips of AZ91, AZ31, and Mg-Sn alloys were prepared by rheo-rolling. As an innovativeprocessing technology with low cost and high efficiency, vibrating sloping plate melt treatment hasgood prospective application in many fields such as rheo-casting, rheo-extrusion, rheo-rolling,metal microstructure refinement, etc.
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Authors: Mehdi Montazeri-Pour, Mohammad Habibi-Parsa
Abstract: A novel experimental technique called "Multi-Axial Incremental Shearing" (MAIS) is proposed to impose plastic shear strain to the bulk metallic materials. The evolution of strain during MAIS processing of AA1100 alloy has been studied by employing 3D finite element modeling. The commercial code DEFORM was used to analyze the deformation and evolution of the working load with rams displacement as the material passes through the die. Simulation results showed that a large amount of accumulative strain can be applied to the sample without change of its dimensions. In order to verify the metal flow and microstructure characteristics, Sn-1wt.% Bi alloy specimens as the representative of the soft metals have been deformed by MAIS process.
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Authors: J. Wannasin, R. Andy Martinez, M.C. Flemings
Abstract: Various processing methods exist for applying agitation to a molten metal during solidification to obtain metal slurries suitable for semi-solid metal processing. . In this paper, a new technique to achieve semi-solid metal structure using agitation during solidification is reported. The technique applies a new medium and means to efficiently create semi-solid metal structures. The results of a systematic study showing the feasibility and the necessary conditions to achieve the structure are discussed.
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Authors: Nariman A. Enikeev, T.S. Orlova, Igor V. Alexandrov, A.E. Romanov
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Authors: Qinglin Jin, Jeong-Pil Eom, Su Gun Lim, Won Wook Park, Bong-Sun Yoo
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Authors: Katja Pranke, Klaus Eigenfeld
Abstract: We investigated the influence of varying amplitudes at constant frequency on the grain size and mechanical properties of magnesium alloy AZ 91. Our experimental setup consists of an ultrasound generator connected to a steel gravity die by screw fitting. Magnesium alloy AZ 91 has been melted in a closed-argon-flooded steel crucible and poured into the die while ultrasound was generated. Cooling curves were recorded during the whole solidification process. The grain size and the mechanical properties were determined and analyzed. As a result, we achieved reduction in grain size as well as an increase in tensile strengths for amplitudes of up to 40% of the maximum amplitude. Yield strengths could be minimally improved in all experiments. The values of elongation and hardness (Brinell) could also be improved for nearly all investigated amplitudes. In summary it is possible to achieve both: grain refinement and increase in tensile strength, hardness and elongation.
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