Papers by Keyword: Growth Kinetic

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Authors: Bo Wei Shan, Xin Lin, Lei Wei, Wei Dong Huang
Abstract: A modified cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate the dendrite growth of alloy. Different from previous models, this model used neither an analytical equation(such as KGT model) nor an interface solute gradient equation to solve the velocity of solid-liquid interface, but used the interface solute and energy conservation and thermodynamic equilibrium condition to describe the solid/liquid interface growth kinetics process. In present model, once the temperature field and solute field were solved by finite different method in the entire domain, the material thermodynamic properties can be substituted into four algebraic equations to easily determine the variation of solid fraction, interface temperature and solute concentration, instead of calculating interface moving velocity. As a result, the complexity of the calculation can be largely reduced. The simulated dendrite growth was in a good agreement with the Lipton–Glicksman–Kurz (LGK) model for free dendritic growth in undercooled melts.
957
Authors: Mourad Keddam
Abstract: A simulation of the growth kinetics of iron boride forming on AISI 1018 carbon steel was done on the basis of a kinetic model. This model including the effect of the incubation time during the formation of iron boride, was applied in order to evaluate the kinetic constant at the ( ) interface, the layer thickness and the mass gain depending on the paste-boriding parameters such as time, temperature and boron potential reflected by the corresponding value of the surface boron content. The simulation results were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data derived from the literature.
269
Authors: Felipe Hernandez-Santiago, Victor M. Lopez-Hirata, Maribel L. Saucedo-Muñoz
Abstract: A study of the coarsening process of the decomposed phases was carried out in the Cu-34wt.%Ni-4wt.%Cr and Cu-45wt.%Ni-10wt.%Cr alloys using transmission electron microscopy. As aging progressed, the morphology of the coherent decomposed Ni-rich phase changed from cuboids to platelets aligned in the <100> Cu-rich matrix directions. Prolonged aging caused the loss of coherency between the decomposed phases and the morphology of the Ni-rich phase changed to ellipsoidal. The variation of mean radius of the coherent decomposed phases with aging time followed the modified LSW theory for thermally activated growth in ternary alloy systems. The coarsening rate was faster in the symmetrical Cu-45wt.%Ni-10wt.%Cr alloy due to its higher volume fraction of precipitates. The activation energy for thermally activated growth was determined to be about 182 and 102 kJ mol-1 in the Cu-34wt.%Ni-4wt.%Cr and Cu-45wt.%Ni-10wt.%Cr alloys, respectively. The size distributions of precipitates in the Cu-Ni-Cr alloys were broader and more symmetric than that predicted by the modified LSW theory for ternary alloys.
2346
Authors: A.L. Berezina, N.I. Kolobnev, Konstantin V. Chuistov, A.V. Kotko, O.A. Molebny
977
Authors: M. Ortíz-Domínguez, Ivan Campos-Silva, José Martínez-Trinidad, Milton Elías-Espinosa, E. Hernández-Sánchez, D. Bravo-Bárcenas
Abstract: The present work estimated the growth kinetics of Fe2B layers formed at the surface of AISI 4140 steels. The thermochemical treatment was applied in order to produce the Fe2B phase, considering temperatures of 1123, 1173, 1223 and 1273 K with five exposure times (2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 h), using a 4 mm thick layer of boron carbide paste over the material surface. The growth of boride layers was described by the mass balance equation between phases in thermodynamic equilibrium, assuming that the growth of boride layers obeys the parabolic growth equation and the boron concentration at the interfaces remains constant. Also, the boron diffusion coefficient at the Fe2B ( ) was established as a function of boriding temperature. Likewise, the parabolic growth constant (k), the instantaneous velocity (v) of the Fe2B/substrate interface and the weight-gain of borided steels were established as a function of the parameters and , which are related to the boride incubation time ( ) and boron surface concentration ( ), respectively.
294
Authors: Ivan Campos-Silva, M. Ortíz-Domínguez, N. López-Perrusquia, R. Escobar Galindo, O.A. Gómez-Vargas, E. Hernández-Sánchez
Abstract: The boron diffusion in the Fe2B and FeB borided phases formed at the surface of AISI H13 tool steels during the paste boriding process was estimated. The treatment was carried out at temperatures of 1173, 1223 and 1273 K with 2, 4, 6 and 8 h exposure times for each temperature using a 4 mm layer thickness of boron carbide paste over the material surface. The boride layers were characterized by the GDOES technique to determine in quantitative form the presence of the alloying elements on the borided phases. The boron diffusion coefficients and were determined by the mass balance equation and the boride incubation time assuming that the boride layers obey the parabolic growth law. Also, the mass gain produced by both boride layers at the surface of the tool steels was determined. Finally, the boron diffusion coefficients were interpreted as a function of the treatment temperature, obtaining the activation energy values for the diffusion controlled growth of Fe2B and FeB hard coatings.
681
Authors: Vasil I. Dybkov
Abstract: Two borides FeB and Fe2B were found to form as separate layers at the interface between a 13% Cr steel and boron at 850-950 oC and reaction times up to 12 h. The chromium distribution within the boride layers is rather irregular. Its average content is 8 at. % in the FeB layer and 9 at. % in the Fe2B layer. Both layers are characterized by a pronounced texture. The strongest reflections are {002} and {020} for the orthorhombic FeB phase and {002} for the tetragonal Fe2B phase. Diffusional growth kinetics of boride layers are close to parabolic and can alternatively be described by a system of two non-linear differential equations, producing a good fit to the experimental data.
183
Authors: Vasil I. Dybkov, L.V. Goncharuk, V.G. Khoruzha, K.A. Meleshevich, A.V. Samelyuk, V.R. Sidorko
Abstract: Two boride layers were found to form at the interface of iiron-chromiium alllloys (10 and 25% Cr) or an industrial 13% Cr steel and boron at 850-950 oC and reaction times in the range 1-12 h. In the case of a Fe-10% Cr alloy and the steel, the layers are based on the FeB and Fe2B compounds. With a Fe-25% Cr alloy, the constituent phases are FeB and CrB for the outer layer and Fe2B and Cr2B for the inner layer. Both layers are characterized by a pronounced texture. Diffusional growth kinetics of boride layers are close to parabolic and can alternatively be described by a system of two non-linear differential equations, producing a good fit to the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the layer growth-rate constants obeys a relation of the Arrhenius type.
181
Authors: Vasil I. Dybkov
Abstract: The Ni3Sn4 intermetallic layer occurs at the interface of nickel and the saturated or undersaturated Sn-base solder melt at 250-450 °C and dipping times of 300 to 2400 s. Mathematical equations are proposed to evaluate the thickness of the Ni3Sn4 layer formed under conditions of simultaneous dissolution in the undersaturated solder melt.
153
Authors: Carlos García de Andrés, Carlos Capdevila, Francisca García Caballero
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