Papers by Keyword: High-Temperature X-Ray Diffraction

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Authors: Adriano Gonçalves Reis, Danieli Aparecida Pereira Reis, Antônio Jorge Abdalla, Antônio Augusto Couto, Jorge Otubo
Abstract: An in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) study in maraging 300 steel was carried out to study the martensite to austenite transformation and effect of time of exposure in the austenite reversion below austenite start temperature. Solution annealed materials were subjected to controlled heating-holding cycles. The first sample was heated at a rate of 10 oC/min from room temperature to 800 oC, showing that the microstructure is completely martensitic (α’110) until 600 oC. From 650 oC until 800 oC, the microstructure is gradually changing from martensitic to austenitic, showed by the increasing peaks of γ111 and reducing peaks of α’110. At 800 oC the microstructure is completely austenitic (γ111). Another sample was heated at 10 oC/min from room temperature to 600 oC and held for 4 hours. At 600 oC, at 0 h time of exposure, only a martensitic peak was observed. An austenite peak can be observed after some time of exposure at this temperature. The volume fraction of austenite increased with increasing time of exposure at 600 oC, reaching 50/50 volume fraction after 4 hours of exposure. XRD diffraction patterns for the same sample that was held for 4 hours at 600 oC and then cooled down in air to room temperature showed the same intensity of austenite and martensitic peaks found in situ at 600 oC for 4 hours (retained austenite), with the volume fraction of 50/50 of austenite and martensite phases. The HTXRD technique can be used to identify and quantify martensite to austenite transformation and austenite retention.
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Authors: Santosh Balijepalli, Saulius Kaciulis, Matteo Amati, Roberto Montanari, Alessandra Varone
Abstract: Liquid Pb–Bi eutectic (LBE) alloy is of great interest as coolant and neutron spallation source for the accelerator driven systems (ADS). Scanning Photoemission Microscopy (SPEM) at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility of Trieste was carried out on samples quenched from melt at different temperatures. SPEM analyses show that the two components (Pb and Bi) are not homogeneously distributed in the range of temperature from melting up to 518 °C, in particular they form clusters enriched in Pb and Bi. The cluster size decreases as temperature increases hence diffusion occurs between clusters and matrix leading to the progressive disgregation of clusters that is almost completed at 518 °C. Such micro-chemical evolution is accompanied by a structural change of the liquid evidenced by the results of High-temperature X-ray Diffraction (HT-XRD). In particular, radial distribution function (RDF) curves show a progressive change of the ratio between the shell radii of 1st and 2nd nearest neighbours.
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Authors: Roberto Montanari, Alessandra Varone
Abstract: Liquid Pb–Bi eutectic alloy has been selected as coolant and neutron spallation source for the development of MYRRHA, an accelerator driven system. The alloy has been characterized in liquid state from melting (125 °C) to 650 °C by mechanical spectroscopy. Experiments have been carried out using hollow reeds of austenitic stainless steel filled with the Pb-Bi alloy and sealed at the extremities. From 350 °C to 520 °C modulus shows a remarkable drop accompanied by a broad internal friction maximum. In the same temperature range radial distribution functions, determined from X-ray diffraction patterns, evidenced variations of the mean distance between the 1st nearest neighbour atoms. The anelastic phenomena have been attributed to a structural re-arrangement of liquid metal. For comparison, other alloys of the Pb-Bi system with hypo-eutectic composition have been investigated.
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Authors: Paolo Deodati, Franco Gauzzi, Roberto Montanari, Alessandra Varone
Abstract: Liquid Pb–Bi eutectic (LBE) alloy has been selected as coolant and neutron spallation source for the development of MYRRHA, an accelerator driven system (ADS). The alloy has been characterized in liquid state from melting (125 °C) to 750 °C by mechanical spectroscopy, i.e. internal friction (IF) and dynamic modulus measurements. The experiments have been carried out using hollow reeds of austenitic stainless steel filled with Pb-Bi alloy and sealed at the extremities. Dynamic modulus showed a remarkable drop in the range 350-520 °C. In the same temperature range radial distribution functions (RDFs), determined from X-ray diffraction patterns, evidenced variations of the mean distance between the 1st nearest neighbour atoms. The phenomenon has been explained as a structural re-arrangement of atoms in the liquid metal.
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