Papers by Keyword: Hygrothermal Comfort

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Authors: Christopher J. Whitman
Abstract: According to the latest official census of 2002, earth construction represented 5.5% of the Chilean building stock. These buildings of traditional construction techniques of unfired earth and straw blocks (adobe), rammed earth (tapial) or wattle and daub (quincha) form a large proportion of Chile’s National Monuments and heritage buildings. In addition to their heritage value, these buildings with their high thermal mass, respond well to the climate conditions of both the altiplano of northern Chile and the Central Valley, zones with high diurnal temperature oscillations, with typical daily temperature differences of up to 20°C. However following the 2005 earthquake in Tarapacá, northern Chile and that of the 27th February 2010 in Central Chile a serious rethink has been required as to the retention and restoration of adobe buildings. Public opinion has labelled earth construction as unsafe and most reconstruction to date has taken place with prefabricated timber solutions which lack the necessary thermal mass to respond well to the climatic conditions. At the same time research into the structural integrity, seismic resistance, maintenance and the living conditions provided by earth construction has been undertaken. In this wider context this paper presents the compilation of international and Chilean research into the hygrothermal properties of adobe construction, in addition to the authors insitu measurements of the temperature and relative humidity in two surviving adobe dwellings in the earthquake hit village of Chépica located in Chile´s Central valley. These measurements are compared with those of a dwelling rebuilt with straw bales and earth render in the same location. Based on this information the paper studies the challenge of rebuilding and restoring heritage buildings whilst providing occupants with the necessary levels of environmental comfort.
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Authors: N.M.M. Ramos, I.M. Ribeiro, P. Santos, João M.P.Q. Delgado, V.P. de Freitas
Abstract: This paper presents ongoing work for the definition of an optimal design strategy for retrofitting educational buildings. The term “optimal design” refers to the selection of different retrofitting solutions to ensure an energy efficient building that can be developed which will not compromise hygrothermal comfort, indoor air quality, health and durability. In this paper, a selection model of thermal insulation thickness of envelope elements is developed, aiming the control of surface condensation and upgrade of hygrothermal comfort. The mathematical formulation of this model leads to a nonlinear program with linear objective function. The software Gmas/Minos was chosen to solve the optimization problem and to develop a calculation program to solve this specific application. The software Energy-Plus developed by the US Department of Energy was used to simulate hygrothermal performance of the building, providing results for a comparison with the developed simulation tool. The paper presents an example of an optimal design problem for a specific classroom of a retrofit educational building.
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