Papers by Keyword: Interfacial Layer

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Authors: M.S. Shamsudin, S.M. Sanip
Abstract: Energy production and storage are both issues with increasing demands for improved performance and the requirement for greener energy resources constitute immense research interest. Graphene, (Gr) has incurred intense interest since its free standing form was isolated in 2004. Gr has immense potential to be used for low-cost, flexible, and highly efficient organic solar cells (OSC) due to its excellent electron-transport properties and extremely high carrier mobility. Numerous Gr-based OSC have been reported, in which Gr serves as different parts of the cell. One of the reasons for the current interest in Gr is the great potential for transparent conductive electrode (i.e. anode or cathode) in OSC. Gr is an ideal two-dimensional material which can be assembled into film electrodes with good transparency, high conductivity, and low roughness. Besides the potential to act as a transparent conductive electrode, Gr also has other attractive properties for solar devices. For example, Gr has been incorporated into photo-active conjugated polymers to improve the excitons (e-/h+ pairs) dissociation and the charge-transport properties of the materials. Additionally, Gr also has potential to be used as an interfacial photo-active layer, since its band gap and band-position can be induced and tuned via chemical functionalization or by controlling the size of the Gr sheets. Although Gr is still a relatively new material it has already made a wide and diverse impact and this review will enlighten us towards using Gr as a novel material for future energy storage/generation applications.
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Authors: Gaida M. Sedmale, Vasily P. Kobyakov
Abstract: In the proposed study the less known kinds of thermal barrier coatings used to protect niobium or its alloys against the oxygen corrosion at temperatures above 6000C are discussed. Coatings were obtained from glass in the system BaO(MgO)- Al2O3- SiO2-P2O5 with the softening temperature above 7000C. The development of amorphous coatings from glass includes the preparation of it, deposition on surface of niobium alloy Nb+1% Zr and high-temperature annealing process. The coating can be represented as a multilayer system – top glassy layer (20-25 µm), glasscrystalline (8-10µm) and crystalline interfacial layer (~ 5-8 µm). The interfacial layer forms in the result of diffusion of Nb in a narrow layer close to substrate. Interfacial layer is crystalline and is composed from fine NbP crystals. This layer is the determinative barrier for oxygen diffusion into the substrate at the maximum of operating temperature 950 0C.
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Authors: Wen Yuan Deng
Abstract: The Interfacial layer has an important influence on the optical performance of the deep ultraviolet (DUV) coatings. The variable angle Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of three kinds of DUV coating samples were performed in the wavelength range 150-500nm using a purged variable angle Spectroscopic ellipsometer. The samples include the single layer sample, double layers sample, and three layers sample. The thickness and optical index of the MgF2 layer and LaF3 layer as well as those of the interfacial layer between them were obtained by successful regression of the SE measurements. For the single layer, the agreement of the results between the SE and the spectrophotometic techniques was very good. The obtained thickness of the two kinds of interfacial layer was in consistent with the RMS results of the single layer obtained by AFM, indicating the obtained results were reliable.
277
Authors: Li Wu Huang, Yeong Jern Chen, Teng Shih Shih, Lih Ren Hwang
Abstract: Pure aluminum ingot (99.8 wt%) was melted to prepared chilled samples in this study. These samples were then removed to polish their surfaces and put in an ultrasonic cleaner filled with tap water. The polished surface would gradually show foggy marks after being subjected to a period of treating time. Oxide films, if entrapped, would crack, erode and detach from the chilled sample forming foggy marks on the polished surface. The sample then removed to measure oxygen and aluminum concentrations varied along the transition layer between the oxide film and aluminum matrix. Part of chilled samples was melted in a muffle furnace and subjected to different holding time. As the holding time increased, the transition layer between the oxide film and the matrix was increased and composed of different constituents varying from the Al matrix to the oxide film (mainly γ-Al2O3). This transition layer also showed different hardness measured by a nano-hardness tester. The morphologies of cracked oxide film and the eroded oxide particles were affected by the holding time after melted, and small amounts of silicon in the pure aluminum.
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Authors: Peter Tobias, Shinji Nakagomi, A. Baranzahi, R. Zhu, Ingemar Lundström, P. Mårtensson, Anita Lloyd Spetz
1097
Authors: D. Krüger, R. Rosenkranz, B. Tippelt, M. Kuhnert, K. Grießbach, A. Lamprecht, S. Hennecke
433
Authors: B. Agyei-Tuffour, E.R. Rwenyagila, J. Asare, O.K. Oyewole, M.G. Zebaze Kana, D.M. O’Carroll, W.O. Soboyejo
Abstract: This paper explored the effects of pressure on contacts between layers of organic photovoltaic cells with poly (3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as the active layer. The contacts between the layers are modeled using analytical concepts and finite element models. The potential effects of surface roughness and dust particles are modeled along with the effects of lamination pressure and adhesion energy. The results show that, increased pressure is associated with decreased void length or increased contact length. The contacts associated with the interfaces between the active layer and the hole/electron injection layer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: poly styrenesulphonate (PEDOT.PSS) and Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) are also compared. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of stamping/lamination processes for the fabrication of organic photovoltaic cells.
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Authors: Zhe Chuan Feng, C.W. Huang, W.Y. Chang, Jie Zhao, Chin Che Tin, Wei Jie Lu, W.E. Collins
Abstract: We have performed a combined investigation of experiment and theory on the infrared reflectance from cubic SiC grown on Si by chemical vapor deposition. A damping behavior of the interference fringes away from the reststrahlen band and a dip or notch within the “flat top” are observed from some samples while they does not occur in high quality 3C-SiC/Si samples. The former is interpreted due to an interfacial transition layer existed between SiC-Si and a rough surface, while the latter can be demonstrated by a three-component effective medium model.
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Authors: P.D. Maguire, T.I.T. Okpalugo, I. Ahmad
Abstract: Amorphous carbon coatings for implantable medical devices require high mechanical strength, adhesion and uniform biocompatibility response across the devices. Investigation of a-C:H properties and structure variation with thickness and substrate material provides valuable insight into requirements for device coating. A number of devices are coated and the effect of interfacial layers, film doping and the spatial variation in quality is investigated.
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Authors: Liu Yang, Kai Du, Yun Long Wu, Shuai Yang Bao
Abstract: Various mechanisms and correlations have been developed for prediction of thermal conductivity of nano-suspensions. However, seldom theoretical researches on thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing surfactant are found. In this work, a thermal conductivity prediction-model of nanofluid containing surfactants is proposed based on Leong et al.’s model and Langmuir adsorption theory by considering the interfacial surfactant layers. The thickness of the interfacial layer is defined by Langmuir adsorption theory. Compared with the experimental data available in the literature on thermal conductivity of nanofluid containing surfactants, the calculated values on the proposed model have been verified that the proposed models show reasonably good agreement with the experimental results and give better predictions for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids compared to existing classical models.
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