Papers by Keyword: Laser Welding

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Authors: Peter Staron, Jie Liu, Stefan Riekehr, Norbert Schell, Norbert Huber, Nikolai Kashaev, Martin Müller, Andreas Schreyer
Abstract: The laser beam welding (LBW) process has many advantages for industrial production; however, it still has to be optimized for two-phase Ti alloys. Phase transformations and residual stresses play a crucial role for welding these alloys. Specific questions about the development of phase content during fast heating with a laser and rapid cooling can only be addressed with time-resolved in-situ experiments, avoiding artefacts from quenching. Also the residual stress development during cooling depends on the occurring phase transformations. Thus, an LBW chamber employing a fibre laser was developed for use with high-energy X-rays from a synchrotron source. Bead-on-plate welding experiments with 2.5 mm thick samples were carried out at the HZG high-energy materials science beamline (HEMS) at DESY, Hamburg. The first experiments focused on the solid-solid phase transformations in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Moreover, residual stresses developing during cooling were studied.
Authors: Kenji Shinozaki, Motomichi Yamamoto, Kohta Kadoi, Peng Wen
Abstract: Solidification cracking during welding is very serious problem for practical use. Therefore, there are so many reports concerning solidification cracking. Normally, solidification cracking susceptibility of material is quantitatively evaluated using Trans-Varestraint test. On the other hand, local solidification cracking strain was tried to measure precisely using in-situ observation method, called MISO method about 30 years ago. Recently, digital high-speed video camera develops very fast and its image quality is very high. Therefore, we have started to observe solidification crack using in site observation method. In this paper, the local critical strain of a solidification crack was measured and the high temperature ductility curves of weld metals having different dilution ratios and different grain sizes to evaluate quantitatively the effects of dilution ratio and grain size on solidification cracking susceptibility by using an improved in situ observation method.
Authors: Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, Karimbi Koosappa Mahesh, Corneliu Marius Crăciunescu, João Pedro Oliveira, Norbert Schell, Rosa Maria Miranda, Luisa Quintino, José Luis Ocaña
Abstract: The demand of emerging joining techniques for shape memory alloys (SMA) has become of great importance, as their functional properties, namely shape memory effect (SME) and superelasticity (SE) present unique solutions for state-of-the-art applications. Literature shows that significant efforts have been conducted on laser welding of these alloys, although very limited results concerning mechanical properties are repeatedly achieved. A better understanding of the mechanical behaviour of these welded joints may be got through a detailed analysis of the structural characteristics of the material from the base metal to the weld bead. Such studies have been carried out on a series of Ni-rich Ni-Ti SMA laser welded plates using synchrotron radiation.
Authors: Kamil Kolařík, Karel Trojan, Jiří Čapek, Jiří Sís, Ondřej Řídký, Lukáš Zuzánek, Nikolaj Ganev
Abstract: Residual stresses (RS) and welding process represent a traditional partnership between an ever evolving, and vital, technological process and a quantity characterizing the result of this process. As the modern way of joining materials is shifting gradually from conventional welding into friction stir or laser welding, RS remain a crucial parameter which gives clues about the welds’ behavior under dynamic loads. In this contribution the joint created by laser welding with filler wire is described by 2D maps of RS and hardness.
Authors: Mok Young Lee, Woong Seong Chang, Sook Hwan Kim
Abstract: Magnesium alloys are becoming important material for light weight car body, due to their low specific density but high specific strength. However they have a poor weldability, caused by high oxidization tendency and low vapour temperature. In this study, the welding performance of magnesium alloy was investigated for automobile application. The material was rolled magnesium alloy sheet contains 3wt%Al, 1wt%Zn and Mg balance. The effects of filler wire addition was investigated on 2kW Nd:YAG laser welding. For the results, the mechanical properties of welded specimen were similar with base metal in laser welding with and without filler wire. The bridging ability was improved with filler wire without weld properties deterioration on laser welding of magnesium alloy.
Authors: Zhi Gang Xu, Rui Hu Zhou, Hong Yan Gan
Abstract: Because the side-blown protection effect in the laser welding is insufficient, and its convenience and flexibility are restricted. Laser welding coaxial protection nozzle is designed and trial-manufactured. According to the characteristics of laser welding protection, through rational design of nozzle structure, two protection gases are respective controlled .Using the coaxial nozzle for stainless steel laser stitch welding test, its influence on protect effect and the welding process are analyzed. The result indicates that the structure of nozzle’s gas path, gas outlet designed reasonable, venting uniform, protection effect is good. And it can reduce welding splash to focus lens, has certain protection effect.
Authors: Sheng Yong Pang, Li Liang Chen, Ya Jun Yin, Ai Qin Duan, Jian Xin Zhou, Lun Ji Hu
Abstract: Numerical simulation provides a way to improve our understandings of the heat transfer and fluid flow behaviors of the weld pool during laser keyhole welding. However, current numerical studies are only limited to serial simulations which running on a single CPU. In this study, a parallel numerical study of the heat transfer and fluid flow of the weld pool is presented. A mathematical model considering the effect of Marangoni force, buoyancy force, friction force of the mushy zone region and the effect of keyhole is presented. A combined keyhole volume and surface heat source model is also developed. The coupled transient heat transfer and Navier-stokes equations are solved with a high order accuracy parallel projection method. The simulation code is parallelized with the OpenMP language. It is shown that 200% speedup can be achieved on a shared memory quad-core CPU using the presented parallel simulation system. The simulation results agree well with the in-situ high speed CCD video imaging experiments and the literature results.
Authors: Ping Jiang Wang, Ya Ting Huang, Fang Yu Peng, Jiang Fei Qi, Bin Li
Abstract: For the seam feature measurement of the tight butt joint without misalignment in laser welding, current vision sensor cannot obtain the seam gap width and seam position stably and reliably. In this paper, a seam measurement method based on the micro depth of field is proposed. A four times optical magnification lens, a CCD/CMOS camera and an external LED lighting unit are used to constitute the measure system, which can be used for the tight butt joint for laser welding. Experiment indicated that it can obtain the seam gap width and seam position stably and correctly. With the method, seam surface normal vector also can be measured. The measurement accuracy for the seam gap width and seam position is 5 µm and 6 µm, respectively. Furthermore, the narrowest welding seam gap that can be measured by this method is 0.02 mm, which is fully satisfied the demand of the seam measurement in laser welding.
Authors: Alexander Schnell, Matthias Hoebel, Jeff Samuleson
Abstract: Fusion repair processes such as gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and laser welding have been introduced for repairing turbine parts made from Ni-based superalloy materials. The weld-repair of turbine parts is well established, however, the inherent susceptibility of ’ hardened superalloys to weld cracking remains an issue and has resulted in repair limitations for highly loaded areas of turbine parts. This study presents a view of the weldability of superalloys taking both, the impact of the weld process and the weld filler selection into consideration. This comprises the interpretation of specific process parameters into physical parameters controlling the weldability and cracking sensitivity such as thermal gradient in the weld pool and solidification speed. Alloy specific parameters of the weld filler material, such as melting point and solidification interval are studied and set in correlation with the solidification parameters during welding.
Authors: Jung Ryong Park, Jin Woo Park, Kwang Suck Boo
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