Papers by Keyword: Life Cycle Assessment

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Authors: Zi Qi He
Abstract: We have developed a framework for the design of a computer-based LCA tool for the briefing stage of design. The tool helps designer by producing directions, guidelines and concepts for the solution. LCA tool is created using two main phases. First a knowledge-base is created then a computer system is built using the knowledge-base. In this paper we described our approach for building the knowledge-base, and briefly overviewed the computer system which will be described in a sequel paper. The developed tool has several advantages: it provides a systematic way of analysis for the briefing stage and incorporates sustainability issues on it. By sorting information into a hierarchy, it is relatively easy to develop a strategy and research plan for uncovering missing information.
Authors: Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi Ashnani, Anwar Johari, Haslenda Hashim, Elham Hasani
Abstract: Great deal of concerns have been aroused after the global surge of prices of petroleum along with shrinking resources of non-renewable fossil fuel and regarding the necessity of renewable energy sources as alternative fuel. Despite the many positive characteristics of biofuels, they cause a variety of environmental, economical, and social challenges that were not known to decision-makers by usual evaluation tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This paper aims to design a Decision Support System (DSS) which covers weakness of existing assessment tools, using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) models. Furthermore, a sustainable framework for decision making through assessing and considering wider environmental, economic, and social issues pertinent to different steps of development of biofuel is developed.
Authors: Xiao Wei Wang, Fang Yi Li, Jian Feng Li, Li Ming Wang, Xiao Xu Chen
Abstract: Traditionally LCA generally focus on a global scale and on steady-state, linear modeling. How to reflect the varying and complicated spatial characteristics of environmental impacts of large numbers of processes is in urgent need for improving the practicality of the LCA, especially for that with distinct environmental diversity in China. Based on the Chinese environmental policies and standards, a method of multi-environmental spatial scales division in LCA is proposed. First, environmental space types are discussed according to the relations between the life cycle inventories, impact categories of LCA and the environmental spatial characteristics. Second, the environmental spatial scale coefficient is proposed and defined in order to quantify the spatial characteristics and used in the calculation for the environmental impact potentials of products. The method of calculation for the coefficient is presented by analyzing the endure capacity of regional environment. Finally, this method is applied to study the spatial characteristics of ambient air quality and other environmental space types.
Authors: Xiao Wei Wang, Jian Feng Li, Jian Zhi Li, Rui Jun Zhang
Abstract: Because of the simplification for scenario choices and few reflections of space-time characters, product designers or police makers can’t reference effectively the results of LCA. This paper proposed a new LCA method for design scheme based on multi-scenarios coexistence. First, various life-cycle scenarios of product are summarized and the common attributes are extracted to generate the scenario model. Second, the choice matrix of multi-scenarios is founded based on product statistic. And the probabilities of scenarios calculated from the choice matrix are used to gather together the environmental impacts of multi-scenarios in proportion. Third, the inventory data are collected as per scenario including pollution emissions and character information. The later are used to generate personnel, spatial and temporal factors which reflect the diversity of environmental impacts in different scenarios. Finally, the related issues are discussed including matters needing attention in practical application and what need to research in future.
Authors: Feng Gao, Zuo Ren Nie, Zhi Hong Wang, Xian Zheng Gong, Tie Yong Zuo
Abstract: China is the largest primary magnesium producer in the world, because of nearly 80% of the global market share. In the present paper, an approach of life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to build an inventory of air emissions and to analyze the environmental impact of the global warming potential (GWP) and the acidification potential (AP) related to the production of AZ91D magnesium alloy. A summary of environmental impacts of primary magnesium and primary aluminum production with various studies was made to show the influence of uncertainties on the impacts. The results showed that the cumulative GWP and the acidification potential (AP) of AZ91D Mg-alloy are 33.4 t CO2 eq/t ingot and 139 kg SO2 eq/t ingot, with the range of 29.5-36.3 t CO2 eq/t ingot and 104-152 kg SO2 eq/t ingot, respectively. The GWP and AP of primary magnesium account for 90% and 77% of the cumulative environmental impact of AZ91D Mg-alloy. Under the grand background of advancing the development strategy of energy-saving and emission-reducing, China magnesium smelting and manufacture industry has made rapid progress in the structure optimization, energy efficiency improvement, and environment protection. The calculated data show that the improvement measures, e.g. reduction of dolomite consumption and energy consumption, in Chinese Pidgeon process led to 23% decrease of the GWP for the primary magnesium production in 2009 compared with 2005. The global warming reduction potential for 1 ton AZ91D alloy ingots produced in China was estimated of substituting HFC-134a for SF6 as a cover gas.
Authors: Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid, Sumiani Yusoff, Noorsaidi Mahat
Abstract: The introduction of life cycle assessment (LCA) to the building industry is important due to its ability to systematically quantify every environmental impact involved in every process from cradle to grave. Within the last two decades, research on LCA has increased considerably covering from manufacturing of building materials and construction processes. However, the LCA application for buildings in Asia are limited and fragmented due to different research objectives, type of buildings and locations. This paper has attempted to collect and review the application of LCA in the building industry in Asia from the selected publications over the last 12 years, from 2001 to 2012. The result shows that most LCA research basic methodology is based on International Organization of Standardization (ISO) 14040 series but with variance. It is found that the operational phase consume highest energy and concrete responsible for the highest total embodied energy and environmental impact. It also suggested that building material with low initial embodied energy does not necessarily have low life cycle energy. Overall, findings from LCA studies can help to make informed decisions in terms of environmental impact and help realizing sustainable buildings in the future.
Authors: Chia Pei Chou, Ning Lee
Abstract: This study inspects the benefits of using RAP on both financial and environmental aspects from life cycle viewpoints. The Life Cycle Cost Saving (LCCS) and the Life Cycle Carbon Reduction (LCCR) of various RAP mixtures (RAP content 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) to the virgin mixture are introduced and applied in this study. Carbon emission data of associated materials are obtained from PaLATE database. According to calculations, the RAP mixtures corresponding cost ratio and service life ratio exceed certain thresholds to have advantages over virgin mixtures. From a financial perspective, the service life ratio of RAP mixtures to virgin mixtures must be larger than the cost ratio of these two materials. For environmental benefit, the service life of RAP mixtures must be over 70% (40% RAP) to 90% (10% RAP) of that of the virgin mixture.
Authors: Li Ping Wang, Bi Xi Dong, Meng Meng Yin
Abstract: At present, the global warming has drew people`s attention to the emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2, the essence of which is worrying about the more and more carbon emissions. PP-R pipe has been widely used in production and livelihood, so evaluating the carbon footprint of PP-R pipe is very necessary. This paper evaluated the carbon footprint of PP-R pipe from the production of raw materials to waste disposal, based on the life cycle assessment. The result of the study is that, in the life cycle of PP-R pipe 74.02% of the total carbon emissions come from the production of raw materials. But if using reclaimed materials to replace the total carbon emissions would reduce 52.90%. So an innovative technology of PP-R raw materials producing and using more reclaimed materials are the keys to cut down the carbon emissions of PP-R pipe.
Authors: Vanchai Laemlaksakul, Naratip Sangsai
Abstract: The objective of this research was to determine the global warming potential (GWP) of office furniture in Thailand. The life cycle of product was carried out from a gate-to-gate perspective according to life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, the environmental impact of global warming is the seat backrest; seat frame and seat recline, respectively. To improve the production of seat frame, the piece that the environmental impacts of global warming as much as possible can help reduce the impact on the environment caused by the release of toxins into the air decreases..
Authors: Li Wang
Abstract: Resource shortage and people’s concern about the problems in eco-environment deterioration will have a great influence on building energy efficiency. Building energy efficiency is base for achieving green reduction and energy conservation is the key point to green building design. This paper starts with green building concept and evaluation, studies the important role of science and technology in the development of green building and analyzes building energy conservation from three aspects: green materials, energy-saving measures and building practices. The paper aims to promote the development of China's green building in the new era.
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