Papers by Keyword: Nanocrystalline

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Authors: Ming Zhao, Li Hui Sun, Ji Fan Hu, Hong Wei Qin
Abstract: The La1-xCaxFeO3 nanocrystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel method. These powders crystallized as perovskite orthorhombic structure. With an increase of Ca content, the resistance of La1-xCaxFeO3 sensors in air decreases at first, undergoes a minimum at x=0.3, and then increases again. La1-xCaxFeO3-based sensors show sensitive responses to CO. Among those La1-xCaxFeO3-based sensors, the sensor with x=0.2 shows the highest response to 200 ppm CO at operating temperatures below 325°C. The highest response S=(RCO-Rair)/RCO for the La0.8Ca0.2FeO3 based sensor to 200 ppm CO is 87% with response time 15 s and recovery time 60 s at an operating temperature of 100°C.
Authors: Z.F. Zhu, Y. Zhou, R.L. Wang
Abstract: Pr-CeO2 nano-crystalline red lanthanide pigments were prepared from cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate and praseodymium oxide by low-temperature combustion synthesis. Its ignited temperature was approximately 250°C. The prepared pigments were characterized by DSC, XRD, SEM and XPS. The results showed that the crystallite size decreases with increasing Pr mol concentration. The valence of praseodymium in the pigments and its coloring mechanism were also investigated. The trivalent Pr entered into CeO2 crystal lattice and formed Pr-CeO2 solid solution, which was based on the fluorite structure. It substituted trivalent Pr for tetravalent Ce in CeO2 crystal and was compensated by oxygen vacancies, which caused the distortion and the defection of the crystal lattice. Therefore the pigments can absorb the light with the wavelength of approximate 600nm and present the red tonality.
Authors: K. Anantha Padmanabhan, Herbert Gleiter
Abstract: An earlier proposal is generalized to explain superplasticity in different classes of materials and grain size ranges. A definition of “superplasticity” as due to a unique physical mechanism, rather than in terms of extreme elongations and/ or strain rate sensitivity index, m, being more than or equal to 0.30 emerges.
Authors: Eric Gaffet, Cathy Meunier, Serge Vives, J.-P. Itié
Authors: Harald Kaps, Mohammad Lutful Arefin, Ulrich Herr, Heiko Paul
Abstract: Nanocrystalline (Y1-xEux)2O3 powder was synthesized via a chemical vapour reaction. Xray diffraction revealed the structure of cubic yttria with crystallite sizes of about 5 nm. The Eudopand concentrations x for the samples in the range from 0.003 up to 0.165 were determined by EDX-spectra. The luminescence of the nanopowders was investigated by continuous and timeresolved UV-fluorescence spectroscopy and compared to a microcrystalline Y2O3:Eu phosphor as a reference. The emission spectra show an increasing intensity for higher doping concentrations. However, compared to the microcrystalline material the yield was significantly lower. The lifetime of the 5D0 – 7FJ transition in the nanocrystalline Y2O3:Eu was found to be significantly longer than for the microcrystalline reference sample. For increasing Eu-content the lifetime in the nanocrystalline samples decreased continuously from 3.71 ms to a value of 1.20 ms for the highest doping concentration. The concentration dependent lifetime behaviour was interpreted by energy transfer between Eu ions and from Eu ions to impurities as a competing process to the radiative 5D0 – 7F2 transition.
Authors: Frederico Orlandini Keller, Juliano Assis Baron Engerroff, Leonardo Ulian Lopes, Nério Vicente Jr., Paulo Antônio Pereira Wendhausen
Abstract: Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was studied as a means to consolidate Nd-Fe-B powders, previously subjected to grain refinement by HDDR (Hidrogenation–Disproportionation–Dessorption–Recombination). The sintering process was carried out under 60 MPa constant pressure, varying the maximum processing temperature from 500 °C to 900 °C with a holding time of 5 min. Densification was observed above 600 °C related to the melting of Nd-rich phase. The magnetic properties are clearly related to microstructure coarsening associated with the SPS temperature regime. A monotonic decrease for coercivity (Hcj) was observed as a function of maximum SPS operating temperature with values varying from maximum of 750 kA/m at 500 °C to less than 200 kA/m for SPS at 900 °C. Remanence (Br) and maximum energy product (BH)max showed optimum values for intermediate temperatures, since these properties benefit from the densification developed by SPS.
Authors: Yulia Ivanisenko, Hans Jörg Fecht
Abstract: Instrumented high pressure torsion, i.e. mechanical test in a torsion mode under high pressure, allows interesting possibility of materials testing, because materials mechanical response can be studied in a practically unlimited shear strain range. We have studied microstructures formed in initially coarse crystalline and nanocrystalline (nc) Pd and its alloys after instrumented HPT up to shear strain 300, and revealed signatures of similar processes occurring in all these materials. In particular, we found traces of cooperative grain boundary sliding in the form of aligned in parallel segments of boundaries of several grains with straightened triple points. Fracture surfaces contained shear bands. Texture measurements revealed lower dislocation activity in nanocrystalline state as compared with coarse crystalline one. Therefore we argue that cooperative grain boundary sliding is an important deformation mechanism at large strain which develops in both ultrafine grained (ufg) and nanocrystalline materials. In nc and ufg materials planes of cooperative grain boundary sliding act as precursors of shear bands and shear occurs along planes formed by numerous grain boundaries.
Authors: S.K. Sharma
Abstract: Amorphous alloys, in general, exhibit superior mechanical and chemical properties as compared to their crystalline counterparts, which is attributed to their chemical homogeneity and to the absence of crystal-like structural defects. Nanocrystalline and fully crystallized forms of these alloys can be easily obtained by a suitable thermal annealing treatment. It is important to have the knowledge of corrosion/oxidation behavior of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys for various possible applications. In contrast to many investigations on corrosion and oxidation behavior of amorphous alloys reported in the literature, only limited studies have been carried out on comparison of corrosion/oxidation behavior of amorphous and nanocrystalline states of the same alloy. With this motivation potentiodynamic polarization studies were carried out on amorphous and nanocrystalline states of the alloy Ti60Ni40 in several aqueous media at room temperature. The oxidation in air was also investigated in the temperature range 2800C-3800C using a thermogravimetric analyzer. It was found from these investigations that nanocrystalline state exhibits the maximum corrosion/oxidation resistance in comparison to amorphous and crystalline states. The better corrosion/oxidation resistance of nanocrystalline state can be explained in terms of the nature of the nanocrystalline phase/phases and the size of the crystallites. The results of the present study are supported by other similar studies reported in the literature. A short review on comparison of corrosion/oxidation behaviour of amorphous and nanocrystalline Ti-based alloy is also presented in the paper.
Authors: Shubhra Mathur, Rishi Vyas, S.N. Dolia, Kanu Sachdev, S.K. Sharma
Abstract: Potentiodynamic polarization studies were carried out on amorphous, nanocrystalline and crystalline states of the alloy Ti60Ni40 in 0.1 M HNO3, 0.5 M HNO3 and 1 M HNO3 aqueous solutions at room temperature. It was observed that the amorphous state exhibited higher corrosion current density than that by the nanocrystalline state. These results are corroborated by the weight loss studies performed on the different structural states of Ti60Ni40 alloy in 0.1 M HNO3, 0.5 M HNO3 and 1 M HNO3 aqueous media. Thus the nanocrystalline state is least prone to corrosion than the amorphous and the crystalline states.
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