Papers by Keyword: Normal Distribution

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Authors: Xiao Ming Hu
Abstract: This article introduced the 6 sigma management and 6 sigma level. The key point is to explain 3.4DPMO how to calculate. And,it also introduced the important means of six sigma management. At last,it shows the application of six sigma.
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Authors: S. Avakh Darestani, M.Y. Ismail, N. Ismail, R.M. Yusuff
Abstract: This paper introduces a method for evaluating material and product quality. The method is developed based on the normal distribution. For quantitative variable, the method divides the tolerance zones to 3 parts according to normal distribution ±3𝜎 and assigns different scores to tolerance region. For qualitative variables, the method take decision base on the fact that the measurement result can be occurred on two states as accept or reject. Therefore, a Level of Quality (LOQ) will be measured for the product quality based on the measurement of different samples of lot by quantitative and qualitative variables. The method is validated by a numerical example included 2 dimensions.
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Authors: Zhang Miao Li, Feng Hua Jiao, Xin Jian Kou, Yan Meng Zhang
Abstract: Failure probability of a component is the major project of engineering probability. The reliability of a mechanical system or a structural system is calculated by components in the system. However, statistics data shows that the distribution of test data of components is not according with the distribution by theory as normal distribution. Normal distribution is extensively applied in the component reliability nowadays. Its domain is the field of real numbers, whereas, test data of exper-iments are on a finite field. Consequently, the component reliability used the normal distributions has some limitations. It is necessary to choose a suitable distribution in the calculating method. Comparing the normal distribution density curve and the statistics graph, a new distribution is pre-sented in this paper. The examples by both normal distribution and the new distribution are given, respectively. The results suggest that the new distribution is more accurate than normal distribution in the component reliability.
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Authors: Jie Ning Wang, Bin Bin Wang, Yuan Di Zhao
Abstract: To predict the potential conflict during the flight routes, a conflict detection approach based on multi-waypoints is presented. Aimed at the encounter geometry of two aircrafts with multi-waypoints, in order to simply the computational process, the aircrafts routes are divided into several straight conflict paths. Model along track kinematics equation of the aircraft by referencing to a classical conclusion that the along track error of the aircraft is normal distributed, consider an encounter between two aircrafts at the same flight level , construct an ellipse conflict region, by establishing a rectangular coordinate system represented aircraft position appropriately . First, propose a probability estimation algorithm of medium term conflict detection for cross routes at the same level, then analyze the relationship between the conflict probability and several factors based on various graphs. MATLAB result shows that the proposed algorithm is advanced in its simple calculation method, fast calculation speed and precise detection calculations.
2763
Authors: Jung Kyu Kim, Cheon Soo Jang, Chul Su Kim
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Authors: Reenal Ritesh Chand, Ill Soo Kim, Ji Hye Lee, Jong Pyo Lee, Ji Yeon Shim, Young Su Kim
Abstract: In robotic GMA (Gas Metal Arc) welding process, heat and mass inputs are coupled and transferred by the weld arc and molten base material to the weld pool. The amount and distribution of the input energy are basically controlled by the obvious and careful choices of welding process parameters in order to accomplish the optimal bead geometry and the desired mechanical properties of the quality weldment. To make effective use of automated and robotic GMA welding, it is imperative to predict online faults for bead geometry and welding quality with respect to welding parameters, applicable to all welding positions and covering a wide range of material thickness. To successfully accomplish this objective, two sets of experiment were performed with different welding parameters; the welded samples from SM 490A steel flats adopting the bead-on-plate technique were employed in the experiment. The experimental results of current and voltage waveforms were used to predict the magnitude of bead geometry and welding quality, and to establish the relationships between weld process parameters and online welding faults. MD (Mahalanobis Distance) technique is employed for investigating and modeling of GMA welding process and significance test techniques were applied for the interpretation of the experimental data. Statistical models developed from experimental results which can be used to control the welding process parameters in order to achieve the desired bead geometry based on weld quality criteria.
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Authors: Ji Bin Pei, Yun Feng Zhao, Shao Ping Yu, Jie Zhao
Abstract: The scattering of creep rupture data was represented by Z-parameter method based on Larson-Miller method. It was verified that the values of Z were supported by normal distribution. After obtained the distribution characteristics of creep rupture data using Z-parameter, reliability design for rupture allowable stress was carried out according to design life. Safety factor method is used for safety guarantee in conventional rupture allowable stress design and minimum rupture strength method is used in some standard. In comparison with safety factor method and minimum rupture strength method, it can be seen that reliability design based on Z-parameter is more agree with experimental data than other methods. Reliability design provides more precise results by considering the real distribution of creep rupture property and provides more flexible choice for design due to the need of safety and economy.
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Authors: L.C. Edomwonyi-Otu, B.O. Aderemi, O. Edomwonyi-Otu, A. Simo, M. Maaza
Abstract: The Development of Sustainable Processing Technologies for the Vast Mineral Resources Available in Nigeria and their Varied Applications Is a Major Pursuit by the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology. in this Work, Alum Was Produced from Three Different Kaolin Deposits in Nigeria Namely Kankara Brown, Bauchi and Kankara White by Acid Dealumination of the Metakaolin Obtained by Calcination of the Beneficiated Kaolinites and the Yields Were Measured to Ascertain the Process Repeatability. the Reproducibility Studies Carried Out on Samples from each Deposit Showed a Mean Yield of 80 %, 92 % and 87 % and Standard Deviation of 2.50 %, 1.063 % and 1.296 %, for Kankara Brown, Bauchi and Kankara White Respectively. the Values from the Three Deposits Fall within 3 Standard Deviations of the Mean in Accordance with the 68-95-99.7/three-Sigma Rule. the Alum Quality Also Compares Well with Available Commercial Alums in the Market. BET Analysis, of the Alumina Obtained by Calcination of the Alum (Kankara White), Gave a Surface Area of 192.2441m2/g Comparable to Commercial Alumina. these Results Suggest/establishes the Huge Possibility of Commercial Alum Production, Including Alumina, Using Kaolinite Clay from these Deposits as Starting Materials.
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Authors: Yi Bing Jiang, Xu Nan Gao, Ping Han
Abstract: It’s very important for the traffic flow theory, the traffic management and control, and the programming and design of roads to master the law of speed. And the most intuitive form is the speed distribution to describe the law. Based on the maximum entropy principle, this paper proposes a model which can generate the speed distribution curves only with the observed date. And the availability of this method has been proved by the example analysis. The fact has also been found that fitting with maximum entropy distribution is better than with normal distribution in peak hour and is worse than it in off peak hour, but the difference is not great. This model does not need assumptions. Moreover it has a simple calculation and a strong practicability. So this paper makes a contribution to the study of the speed distribution.
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