Papers by Keyword: Precipitation

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Authors: Wei Wang, Cun Lei Zou, Ren Geng Li, Wen Wen, Hui Jun Kang, Tong Min Wang
Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to study a deformed Cu-0.88 Fe-0.24 P alloy during heating process. The measurements were performed at room temperature and also at high temperatures up to 893 K in order to determine the recovery, ageing and recrystallization process. With the increase of temperature, the angles of copper matrix peaks moved left and the FWHM (full width at half maximum) decreased slightly. Fe3P precipitates were first detected at 533 K, reached the maximum at 673 K, and re-dissolved into matrix at 853 K. A dramatic decrease in FWHM was observed accompanied by the precipitation of Fe3P phases, indicating the reduction of lattice distortion of copper matrix.
191
Authors: B.J.M. Leite Ferreira, M.C.F. Magalhães, Rui N. Correia
Abstract: We investigated the in vitro formation of apatites and other biologically relevant calcium phosphates, in particular the influence of temperature and pH in the nature of the mineral phases. With this purpose several calcium phosphates were synthesized under controlled conditions, in presence of atmospheric CO2. The results obtained suggest that both factors under study, temperature and pH, have major influence in the nature of the mineral phases obtained.
7
Authors: Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, Karolin Jiptner, Jun Chen, Ronit R. Prakash, Jian Yong Li, Takashi Sekiguchi, Takuto Kojima, Yoshio Ohshita, Atsushi Ogura, Masayuki Fukuzawa, Satoshi Nakano, Bing Gao, Koichi Kakimoto
Abstract: To get the optimized condition and ideal furnace structure, we have performed seed cast growth of mono-crystalline Si by using unidirectional solidification furnace. More than 20 ingots of 10 cm diameter and 10 cm height were grown under different growth conditions. The quality of ingots was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), infrared microscopy, scanning infrared polariscope (SIRP), X-ray topography, etc. We have realized reduction of carbon, residual strain and extended defects, which may contribute the increase of solar cell efficiency.
89
Authors: Hong Yao Yu, Cheng Yu Chi, Jian Xin Dong, Xi Shan Xie
Abstract: The Nb-contained austenitic heat-resistant steel 18Cr10NiNb(TP347H) has been widely used as super-heater and re-heater tube material for modern ultra-super-critical (USC) power plants in the world. High temperature structure stability is considered to be one of the most important factors for long-term service. Long-term aging at 650 °C for this steel was conducted till 10,000 hours. Effect of aging time on microstructure was studied by means of SEM and TEM. Tensile tests were carried out after aging at 650 °C for different times. Experimental results show that MX phase and M23C6 carbides are major strengthening precipitates in this steel. With increasing of aging time, fine nano-size MX particles precipitate in grains and its size keeps about 50 nm till 10,000 h at 650 °C. Carbide M23C6 mainly precipitates at grain boundaries but coarsens quickly. Investigation results show that MX phase plays the most important strengthening effect in grains. The amount of MX phase increases with increasing of Nb and C contents. The effects of Nb and C contents on mole fractions of MX phase in 18Cr10NiNb steel have been calculated by using Thermo-Calc software.
180
Authors: Hong Yao Yu, Jian Xin Dong, Xi Shan Xie
Abstract: The Cu-containing austenitic heat-resistant steel 18Cr-9Ni-3CuNbN has been widely used as superheater and reheater tube material for modern ultra-super-critical (USC) power plants in the world. High temperature structure stability is considered to be an important factor for long-term service. Long-term aging at 650°C for this steel was conducted from 100 to 10,000hours. Effect of aging time on microstructure was studied by means of SEM, TEM and 3DAP (three dimensional atom probe). Micro-hardness tests were carried out after aging at 650°C for different times to be considered as a representative of strength. Experimental results show that Cu-rich phase, MX and M23C6 are major strengthening precipitates in this steel. With on increasing of aging time, fine nano-size Cu-rich phase particles precipitate in the grains and its size is in the range of several nanometers to 35nm till 10,000h at 650°C. The fraction of MX also increases with aging time and its average size is about 100nm till 10,000h. Carbide M23C6 mainly precipitates at grain boundaries and coarsens quickly. Investigation results show that the most important strengthening effect for 18Cr-9Ni-3CuNbN steel is contributed by Cu-rich phase and MX in the grains and M23C6 carbide at the grain boundaries.
118
Authors: S. Sarkar, Mary A. Wells, Warren J. Poole
Abstract: An investigation was conducted on the softening behaviour of cold rolled continuous cast (CC) AA5754 Al alloy and compared to the results for the ingot cast (IC) material. The present study suggests that the CC material exhibits greater resistance to softening as compared to the IC AA5754 for the same amount of cold deformation. The differences in the softening kinetics become more noticeable with increasing level of cold deformation and from a processing point of view can be attributed to the absence of the homogenization stage during the processing of the CC material. Resistivity measurements were carried out during the annealing treatment of the CC materials to examine the possibility of concurrent precipitation, which could potentially retard the softening kinetics for these materials. In addition, the current research reveals that the CC material produces a finer recrystallized grain size as compared to the IC material.
1641
Authors: Abdelali Hayoune
Abstract: In contrast to isothermal aging, few reports document the non-isothermal aging of deformed Al–Mg–Si alloys. The knowledge of non-isothermal aging of pre-deformed Al–Mg–Si alloys is of primary importance to understand the thermal stability as well as to control the microstructure of the final product during industrial processing. Therefore, the present work has been focused to understand the microstructure evolution during the continuous heating of a cold rolled Al–Mg–Si alloy. This has been followed using dilatometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, X-Ray Diffraction and microhardness measurement. Based on the results obtained, it is shown that dilatometry is a powerful tool to study phase transformations in deformed Al-Mg-Si alloys, moreover, the microstructural evolution, of the cold rolled sample, can be described as follows: at the earlier stages of the non-isothermal aging, formation and then the reversion of fully coherent GP zones take place. This is followed by the simultaneous occurrence of β” and β’ precipitation and recovery reaction. By continuing aging, the next reactions which will take place are β” and β’ dissolution and recrystallization. Finally, one can observe the formation and then the dissolution of the equilibrium phase β.
103
Authors: M. Borrell, R.I. Grynszpan, N. Ji
909
Authors: D.M. Hunter, R.I. Grynszpan
659
Authors: Ji Yong Yao, D.A. Graham, Malcolm J. Couper
1083
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