Papers by Keyword: Propane

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Authors: A. Ruheng, Jiang Wang, Zhao Ri Ge Tu Bao
Abstract: Ni-Ce-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with various Ni:Ce:Al molar ratios (3: 0.1:0.9, 3:0.2:0.8 and 3:0.5:0.5) were prepared by Co-precipitation. Ce can replace Al in a wide range of Ce/Al ratios to form Ni-Ce-Al-LDH with the unique layered structure of hydrotalcite. After the calcined at 600°C, LDHs samples were converted to mesoporous NiO-CeO2 mixed oxides with a high surface area. The Ni-Ce-Al mixed oxide catalysts exhibit superior catalytic activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and the excellent activities were attributed to mesoporous structure and the suppression of coke deposition.
1098
Authors: Agus Sunjarianto Pamitran, Sentot Novianto, T.A. Simanjuntak, Nasruddin, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid
Abstract: This study experimentally investigated two-phase flow pressure drop of propane as refrigerant in horizontal small tube. Inner diameter and length of the tube were 7.6 mm and 1.07 m, respectively. In order to get pressure drop data, the experiment was conducted in various conditions of 10 to 25 kW m-2 heat flux, 200 to 628 kg m-2 s-1 mass flux, and 4.0 to 11.7°C saturation temperature. This study clearly showed the effect of heat flux, mass flux, and saturation temperature on the pressure drop of propane. This study also investigated which fluid properties gave higher effect on the frictional pressure drop due to its change over the process based on the recent experiment data. The existing pressure drop correlations were evaluated against the experimental result.
371
Authors: N. Austin, P.M. Diaz, D.S. Manoj Abraham, N. Kanthavelkumaran
Abstract: Study on environment friendly mixed refrigerant to replace R134a in vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) System. The mixed refrigerants investigated are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutene (R600a) and R134a. Even though the ozone depletion potentials of R134a relative to CFC-11 are very low; the global warming potentials are extremely high and also expensive. For this reason, the production and use of R134a will be terminated in the near future. Hydrocarbons are free from ozone depletion potential and have negligible global warming potential. The results showed that, mixed refrigerant with charge of 80 g satisfy the required freezer air temperature when R134a with a charge of 110 g is used as refrigerant. The actual COP of refrigerator using mixed refrigerant was almost nearer that of the system using R134a as refrigerant. The coefficient of performance of the vapour compression refrigeration system using mixed refrigerant MR-3 [R134a/R290/ R600a/ R600 (20/35/40/5)] is having very close value with R134a and the Global warming potential of MR-3 is negligible when compared with R134a. Hence the mixed refrigerant MR-3 is chosen as an environmental friendly alternate refrigerant to R134a. The exergy analysis of the vapour compression refrigeration system using R134a and all the above mixtures are investigated. The effect of evaporator temperature on exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio of the system are experimentally studied. The exergy defect in the compressor, condenser, expansion device and evaporator are also obtained. Key words: R134a, Mixed refrigerant, Chlorofluorocarbons, Propane, Butane, Isobutene, REFPROP, COP, ODP, GWP, Exergy, VCR System.
1174
Authors: Yu Ming Gao, Ji Lin Cao, Panpan Chen, Hong Fei Guo, Zhao Yang Tan
Abstract: The phase equilibrium of the quaternary system H2O-H2O2-CO(NH2)2-C3H8 with gas hydrate formation had been studied at high pressure and low temperature. The temperature and pressure of gas hydrate formed from different hydrogen peroxide concentration aqueous were determined at adding surfactants and no surfactants separately. It was concluded that the equilibrium pressure of gas hydrate formation was increasing with the increase of the hydrogen peroxide concentration, the urea concentration and the temperature, the mother liquor amount entrained in the gas hydrate after liquid separation by sinking was very high when surfactants was not added, but the equilibrium pressure of gas hydrate formation was decreased and the mother liquor amount entrained in gas hydrate was also decreased when surfactants was added to the system. In addition, the equilibrium pressure of gas hydrate formation in the quaternary system H2O-H2O2-CO(NH2)2-C3H8 was calculated according to Chen-Guo thermodynamic model, improved UNIFAC mathematical equation and Aasberg-Peterson fugacity coefficient model. The calculated data was in agreement with the experiment data.
1690
Authors: Taib Iskandar Mohamad, Mark Jermy, Matthew Harrison
Abstract: Power reduction when converting a gasoline engine to propane can be mitigated by designing an injection system so the heat required for evaporation of the propane is drawn from the intake air. Air is cooled and densified, resulting in volumetric efficiency increase. LPG sprays were imaged using Mie and LIF imaging techniques from a port fuel injector, and from long and short connecting pipes. Images were taken in an optically-accessed pressure chamber at atmospheric pressure and fuel pressures of 1.5 MPa. Images of the pipe-coupled injection spray show significant evaporation in the pipe, whose amount depend on the length and diameter of the pipe. The duration of the LPG pulse at the manifold end is, for 300mm pipes, five times the original duration at the injector, and even greater for 600mm pipes. The narrow sprays and the amount of evaporation that occurs before the fuel enters the manifold explains the differences in engine torque and in-cylinder mixture temperature with the different systems.
20
Authors: Jian Bo Chen, Fen Li, Kuang Wei Min
Abstract: This paper bring forward a new system of heat pump air-conditioner and hot water combination, base on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of two different domestic air-conditioner heat recovery systems. With experiment research, it also summarized improvement methods and problems which should be pay attention to in the design of this kind of system.
6199
Authors: Kassem Alassaad, François Cauwet, Davy Carole, Veronique Soulière, Gabriel Ferro
Abstract: Abstract. In this paper, conditions for obtaining high growth rate during epitaxial growth of SiC by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism are investigated. The alloys studied were Ge-Si, Al-Si and Al-Ge-Si with various compositions. Temperature was varied between 1100 and 1300°C and the carbon precursor was either propane or methane. The variation of layers thickness was studied at low and high precursor partial pressure. It was found that growth rates obtained with both methane and propane are rather similar at low precursor partial pressures. However, when using Ge based melts, the use of high propane flux leads to the formation of a SiC crust on top of the liquid, which limits the growth by VLS. But when methane is used, even at extremely high flux (up to 100 sccm), no crust could be detected on top of the liquid while the deposit thickness was still rather small (between 1.12 μm and 1.30 μm). When using Al-Si alloys, no crust was also observed under 100 sccm methane but the thickness was as high as 11.5 µm after 30 min growth. It is proposed that the upper limitation of VLS growth rate depends mainly on C solubility of the liquid phase.
323
Authors: Lilis Yuliati
Abstract: Flame stability of gaseous fuel inside meso-scale combustor with double wire mesh was investigated experimentally. Combustor was made from quartz glass tube with an inner diameter of 3,5 mm and an outer diameter of 5 mm. Two pieces of wire meshes were made from stainless steel inserted at 10 and 13 mm from the end of combustor. Propane was used as fuel in this research. Flame was stabilized in the region between two wire meshes. The flame has a blue luminosity, indicate no soot formation condition. However, the second wire mesh and combustor wall has red luminousity at high velocity reactant, indicate that they have high temperature and emmited heat radiation. Meso-scale combustor with double wire mesh has broader flame stability area if compared to combustor with single wire mesh. Extention of this region occured toward lower equivalence ratio for lean fuel mixture, as well as toward higher equivalence ratio for rich fuel mixture. The most important extention region of flame stability area is toward higher reactant flow rate. It was caused by existing of second wire mesh which has function to prevent occurence of blow–off at relatively high reactant flow rate, as well as to increase heat recirculation to unburnt reactant as a results of higher wall temperature.
231
Authors: En Yu Wang, Jing Qin, Xing Xiang, Jin Xiang Wu
Abstract: Diffusion combustion of propane and air in a rotational combustor was simulated by three-dimensional numerical model based on FLUENT. Influence of centrifugal field on the flame shapes and temperatures were discussed under various jet angles changing in the plane perpendicular to the rotational axis. The flame is compressed when the value of jet angle θ is less 90°, otherwise, the flame is stretched when |θ|>90°. When θ<90°, the deflection of flame becomes larger with an increase of θ. As contrasted to positive θ cases, the zones of high temperature in combustion chamber corresponding to negative are larger, and the maximal flame temperatures are likewise larger. The negative jet angle is useful to flame stability. External fluid is an important factor influence the distribution of temperature in combustion chamber.
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