Papers by Keyword: Retained Austenite

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Authors: Thomas Rieger, Klaus Herrmann, Dagmar Carmele, Stephan Meyer, Thomas Lippmann, Andreas Stark, Wolfgang Bleck, Uwe Klemradt
Abstract: The ‘Quenching and Partitioning’ (Q&P) concept aims to increase the strength level of conventional TRIP-assisted advanced high strength steel (AHSS) by replacing ferritic constituents by tempered martensite. The Q&P heat treatment process involves austenitization and interrupted quenching followed by carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite at elevated temperatures. The final microstructure is traditionally investigated at room temperature after metallographic preparation by microscopy and x-ray analysis with laboratory tubes. Besides other disadvantages the established characterization methods are not adequate to observe the development of the microstructure during Q&P treatment. In the present work the microstructural evolution during Q&P processing was monitored by in-situ diffraction experiments using very hard (100 keV) synchrotron x-ray radiation. Debye-Scherrer rings were recorded as a function of time and temperature during the heat treatment in a state-of-the-art dilatometer (type Bähr DIL805AD) at the Engineering Materials Science beamline HARWI-II (HZG outstation at Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg). The diffraction patterns contain quantitative information on the phases present in the sample (for more details cf. Abstract Carmele et al, this conference). The evolution of the austenite phase fraction during the partitioning treatment at the quench temperature (1-step Q&P) is discussed exemplarily for a Si-based TRIP steel with additions of Ni.
Authors: Pei Xing Liu, Xiang Yun Yu, Kai Wang, Bin Zhu, Li Jian, Yi Sheng Zhang
Abstract: A new hot stamping process with quenching and partitioning treatment is proposed in the paper. Compared to direct hot stamping process, the microstructures with some retained austenite not only including martensite are formed according to the constrained carbon equilibrium (CCE) model. During the new hot stamping process, tools with high temperature are used to control the quenching temperature (QT) between Ms and Mf, and the partitioning treatment of the part is also implemented in the tools by prolonging holding times. In this paper, different holding times (partitioning times) controlled by servo press, are used to research the influence of partitioning time on mechanical properties.
Authors: Elena V. Pereloma, Azdiar A. Gazder, Ilana B. Timokhina
Abstract: Advances in the development of new high strength steels have resulted in microstructures containing significant volume fractions of retained austenite. The transformation of retained austenite to martensite upon straining contributes towards improving the ductility. However, in order to gain from the above beneficial effect, the volume fraction, size, morphology and distribution of the retained austenite need to be controlled. In this regard, it is well known that carbon concentration in the retained austenite is responsible for its chemical stability, whereas its size and morphology determines its mechanical stability. Thus, to achieve the required mechanical properties, control of the processing parameters affecting the microstructure development is essential.
Authors: D.V. Edmonds
Abstract: Recent decades have witnessed some remarkable advances in engineering steels driven by the need to respond to challenges posed, for example, by recovery and transmission of oil and gas, or enhanced vehicle safety and fuel economy. Foremost amongst these must surely be the extended application of carbon steels, achieved principally through ferrite grain refinement by the practice of microalloying coupled with controlled thermomechanical processing. Limitations to strengthening ferrite/pearlite structures further by grain refinement or precipitation, however, has focused attention back to acicular forms of microstructure. One of the most interesting advances in this area has been the development of bainitic steels, which have been almost dormant since the mid-20th century. This resurgence may partly be attributed to a better appreciation of the bainite transformation mechanism, and the experimental work for this which unexpectedly spawned some interesting bainitic microstructures which have seen further development and application. These are the so-called ‘carbide-free’ bainites, which employ alloying to replace carbides, principally cementite, with carbon-stabilized retained austenite. Particularly noteworthy has been the emergence of the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) sheet steels with enhanced properties principally targeted for automotive use. It is worth mentioning also that a parallel development has produced similar microstructure in austempered ductile irons (ADI), another important ferrous alloy which has seen recent expanding interest in its application. Even more recently, as we proceed into the 21st century, the concept of employing steel microstructures containing carbon-enriched retained austenite, has been developed further by combining both alloying and novel heat treatment procedures to exchange ‘bainitic’ ferrite with ‘martensitic’ ferrite. Interestingly, this non-equilibrium ‘quenching and partitioning’ process route also offers the possibility to increase the retained austenite carbon concentration to very high levels, potentially revealing new and previously unobtainable properties.
Authors: Mahesh C. Somani, Jaakko I. Hannula, Antti J. Kaijalainen, Devesh K. Misra, David A. Porter
Abstract: Recent interests in developing novel super-high strength steels have led to extensive research efforts in direct quenching with or without tempering (DQ, DQT) or combined with partitioning (DQP). Both strip and plate products have been targeted for different applications. For boron-microalloyed DQ/DQT steels, the ASTM A255 approach for predicting the hardenability was considered inapplicable. Fresh attempts were made to develop new hardenability models through non-linear regression analysis by dynamically varying both the boron factor and multiplying factors of most elements in the alloy factor. Based on the recent concept of quenching and partitioning (Q&P), a novel processing route comprising thermomechanical rolling followed by direct quenching and partitioning (TMR-DQP) has been established for the development of ultra-high strength structural steels with yield strengths ≈1100 MPa combined with good uniform and total elongations and impact toughness. Examples of recent advances made in DQ processing and associated challenges, such as those related to the bendability of low carbon martensitic-bainitic steels and influence of boron on the toughness of Nb-bearing martensitic steels are presented.
Authors: K. Thillairajan, V. Balusamy, V. Ramaswamy
Abstract: An attempt has been made in this research work to develop strong and tough bainitic steels in shorter transformation durations of less than three hours leading to ease of production for steel industries making these steels. High carbon medium alloy steel with high amounts of silicon, cobalt and aluminum was taken up for this study. The steel samples were austempered at 473, 523, 573, and 623K for 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes and then characterized by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations. Microstructure containing plates of bainitic ferrite and substantial amounts of retained austenite placed in between the bainitic ferrite laths was produced. The steel after austempering had hardness in the range 450 – 720 HV at 30 kg load, tensile strength of about 560-620 MPa and room temperature notch impact toughness of about 10J with very less ductility. The details of alloy design and making, metallurgical and mechanical characterizations are discussed.
Authors: Hitoshi Sueyoshi, Nobuyuki Ishikawa, Hiroshige Inoue, Kazuo Hiraoka, Tadashi Kasuya, Ke An, Harley Skorpenske
Abstract: Prevention of weld cracking is necessary for ensuring the reliability of high strength steel structures. Tensile residual stress in the weld metal is one of the major factors causing the weld cracking, therefore, it is important to clarify the residual stress distribution in the weld metal. Conventional stress measurement, the stress relief method using strain gauges and the X-ray diffraction technique, can only provide the stress information in the surface region of the steel weld. The neutron diffraction is the only non-destructive method that can measure the residual stress distribution inside the steel weld [1-3]. The neutron stress measurement was applied for the 980MPa class high strength steel weld and it was revealed that high level of tensile residual stress can affect the weld cracking to a significant degree [4-5]. Recently, it was reported that Ni-Cr type steel weld exhibit higher resistance to the weld cracking compared with conventional low alloy type weld. Increase of tensile residual stress is prevented by lower transformation temperature of the Ni-Cr type weld metal and retained austenite phase is dispersed in the martensite microstructure. It is considered that lower level of tensile residual stress and the existence of retained austenite may prevent hydrogen accumulation in the weld metal [6]. However, retained austenite and the residual stress conditions in the Ni-Cr type high strength steel weld is not well understood. In this study, neutron diffraction analysis was conducted on the Ni-Cr type steel weld joint with the tensile strength level of 980MPa in order to investigate the effect of the retained austenite and the residual stress distribution on the weld cracking.
Authors: Ilana Timokhina, Hossein Beladi, Xiang Yuan Xiong, Yoshitaka Adachi, Peter D. Hodgson
Abstract: A 0.79C-1.5Si-1.98Mn-0.98Cr-0.24Mo-1.06Al-1.58Co (wt%) steel was isothermally heat treated at 350°C bainitic transformation temperature for 1 day to form fully bainitic structure with nano-layers of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite, while a 0.26C-1.96Si-2Mn-0.31Mo (wt%) steel was subjected to a successive isothermal heat treatment at 700°C for 300 min followed by 350°C for 120 min to form a hybrid microstructure consisting of ductile ferrite and fine scale bainite. The dislocation density and morphology of bainitic ferrite, and retained austenite characteristics such as size, and volume fraction were studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy. It was found that bainitic ferrite has high dislocation density for both steels. The retained austenite characteristics and bainite morphology were affected by composition of steels. Atom Probe Tomography (APT) has the high spatial resolution required for accurate determination of the carbon content of the bainitic ferrite and retained austenite, the solute distribution between these phases and calculation of the local composition of fine clusters and particles that allows to provide detailed insight into the bainite transformation of the steels. The carbon content of bainitic ferrite in both steels was found to be higher compared to the para-equilibrium level of carbon in ferrite. APT also revealed the presence of fine C-rich clusters and Fe-C carbides in bainitic ferrite of both steels.
Authors: Shu Zhou, Ying Wang, Nai Lu Chen, Yong Hua Rong, Jian Feng Gu
Abstract: The quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process, based on the quenching and partitioning (Q&P) treatment, has been proposed for producing high strength steels containing significant fraction of film-like retained austenite and controlled amount of fine martensite laths. In this study, a set of Q-P-T processes for C-Mn-Si-Ni-Nb hot rolled plates are designed and realized. The steels with Q-P-T processes present a combination of high strength and relatively good ductility. The origin of such mechanical properties is revealed by microstructure characterization.
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