Papers by Keyword: Sodium Chloride

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Authors: Hui Chung Hsueh, Zue Chin Chang, Chang Ching You, C. B. Lin
Abstract: Abstract: This investigation develops a novel method for fabricating silver chloride films by the heterogeneous precipitation of sodium chloride from aqueous solution and supersaturated solid-state silver nitrate out of aqueous solution. The morphology of the bottom surface of the silver chloride film thus obtained comprises numerous porous stick structures. The top surface comprises equiaxed grains, and columnar grains are observed in the cross-section.
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Authors: Shan Yi Shen, Jih Hsing Chang, Yung Hsu Hsieh
Abstract: The color elimination of real tea wastewater by the electrocatalytic system was investigated. The electrocatalytic system composed IrO2 electrode as the anode and DSA electrode as the cathode under the current density of 40 mA cm-2. Various concentrations of NaCl and wastewater volumes were tested to understand their effects. For the effect of NaCl addition, the color removal efficiency increased 25% under the condition of NaCl addition. The relatively proper operation was 0.25 M NaCl and 1.0 liter wastewater, which caused the color removal efficiency up to 85%. Based on this color removal efficiency, the tea wastewater of 1.0 L consumed the electricity of 0.03KWh.
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Authors: R.E. Rivera Santillan, F. Patricio Ramirez, V.D. Aguilar Perez
Abstract: The recovery of metallic aluminum from the waste generated in the production of secondary aluminum by bioleaching process using the nutrient medium MKM was investigated. The development of this project was carried out due to the need to treat waste foundry which have a major impact on the environment, using environmentally friendly techniques, such as bioleaching. At work, bioleaching of smelting slag of aluminum generated in the laboratories of the Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Chemistry, UNAM, was reported. Tests were conducted using thermophilic microorganisms at 70°C in an orbital incubator at natural pH, obtaining metallic clean aluminum, aluminum in solution and salts solution. The pH, bacterial growth and redox potential were monitored daily. We conclude that bioleaching of aluminum slags is feasible. The lack of information about the treatment of this type of industrial waste, makes this research is pioneer in this field.
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Authors: Fang Hong, Guo Min Cao, Xiao Dan Shuai, Mei Sheng
Abstract: To remove the organic compounds from epoxy resin wastewater which contains high concentration sodium chloride, a catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) process was applied to treat it. The effect of different reaction conditions on total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency was evaluated, and the experimental results showed that the optimal H2O2 dosage, Fe2+ dosage, temperature, and pH were 0.735 M, 0.027 M, 90oC and 3.0, respectively. Multiple additive methods of H2O2 and Fe2+ significantly enhanced TOC removal than the one step addition. The TOC value of treated wastewater was lower than its limit for diaphragm electrolytic cell feed, thus it could be recycled to a chloro-alkali process for reusing.
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Authors: Jun Rui Wu, Miao Cai, Miao Zhang, Shu Du, Ri Na Wu, Xi Qing Yue
Abstract: Sour pickled cabbage is a traditional Chinese food, which was made with fresh vegetables such as cabbage. Because of its naturally fermentation, a lot of lactic acid bacteria are riched in it. However, the traditional naturally fermented sour pickled cabbage were home-made in China, because of the difference of raw material, processing, formula and other factors, the flavor, nutrition and safety of them varied significantly, in order to investigate the influencing factors affected the flavor, quality and security of the naturally fermented sour pickled cabbage, and discuss the relationship between chemical composition and the flavor, quality and security, the acidity, total sugar, nitrite, protein and sodium chloride levels of 5 naturally fermented sour pickled vegetables by means of acid-base titration method, the direct titration, the hydrochloric acid naphthalene ethylenediamine kieldahl method, the indirect precipitation titration method respectively. The results were showed as follow, the acidity were between 0.283% and 0.891%, the total sugar content were between 3.96% to 4.37%, the nitrate content were 0.167 g/kg to 0.267 g/kg, the protein content were between 0.0169% and 0.0218%, the sodium chloride content were between 0.412% and 0.447% respectively.
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Authors: Nor Azrina Resali, Koay Mei Hyie, M.N. Berhan, N.R. Nik Roselina, Che Murad Mardziah
Abstract: Replacement or repair of corrosion damaged equipment is the largest maintenance requirement for the industry. One technique for reducing the corrosion of metals is to coat them with thin layers of less reactive metals or alloys. Unfortunately, most metallic coatings are inherently porous and historically have been of little value as barriers against corrosion. Recently, with the development of new alternative material such as electrodeposited CoNiFe, these problems have largely been overcome. This paper investigated the effects of different aggressive environments on the corrosion behavior of electrodeposited CoNiFe. Interestingly, the mixed morphologies with spherical and dendritic structure were found in the neutral and alkaline environment. This morphology exhibited the smallest particle size with less percentage of oxygen elements. Besides, alkaline environment experienced the slowest corrosion rate due to the mixed morphology. It was found that spherical and dendritic refinement provides higher corrosion resistance. The corrosion rate of the sample prepared in alkaline environment was the lowest compared to the others due to the reduction of particle size.
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Authors: Dagmar Galusková, Pavol Šajgalík, Dušan Galusek, Miroslav Hnatko
Abstract: Two alumina based ceramics with 99.99 % and 95 % of Al2O3 were evaluated after dissolution in an aqueous solution containing 0.5 mol/l NaCl at temperatures of 150 and 200 °C. The weight loss of liquid phase sintered alumina was mainly attributed to congruent dissolution of SiO2 and CaO from grain-boundary amorphous film, which is accelerated at higher temperature, accompanied by precipitation of silicaceous phases from oversaturated solution at 200 °C. Pure polycrystalline alumina corroded by loss of alumina grains, which do not dissolve in the corrosion media.
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Authors: Brajendra Mishra, A. Chaudhry, Vikas Mittal
Abstract: This study deals with the evaluation of self-healing ability of conducting polymer corresponding to a corrosion process. Poly ortho-anisidine (PoA) was doped with Phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) and Tungstosilicic acid (TSA) and incorporated in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) coatings. The self-healing abilities of coatings were evaluated using open circuit potential (OCP) in 0.1 M NaCl solution for 45 hours of immersion. The coatings containing doped PoA showed increased positive potential of OCP after 45 hours of immersion as compare toblank PVB which showed a constant profile of OCP over the time indicating uniform corrosion under the coating.Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that PoA doped with TSA is more stable and more effective in the coating. High resolution Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirms the doping of PoA.
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Authors: Ying Zhang, Fa Yun Li, Ting Ting Sun, Jin Long Wang
Abstract: Accumulation of high concentrations of Na and Cl ions in soils is one factor that hampers plant establishment along roadsides in regions where deicing salts are used to improve winter driving conditions. However, there is little information on the accumulation of deicing salts in roadside soil as well as on the phytotoxic impact of deicing salts on pines in Northeast China. The accumulation of salt in soil and injuries on pine needles (Pinus tabulaeformis) were investigated in the urban areas of Shenyang city in 2011. The results showed that the use of deicing salts on roads leads to the high accumulation of sodium (352–513 mg•kg-1) and chloride (577–2,353 mg•kg-1) in urban roadside soil. High pH and EC values suggested that the alkaline status and high soluble salts in the soil. High accumulation of deicing salts in roadside soil has been shown to have a phytotoxic effect on pines (Pinus tabulaeformis). Concentrations of Na and Cl in leaves were higher in the roadside plants than the plants appearing healthy in control site. The accumulation of Na and Cl in the needles were present up to an average of 274 mg•kg-1 (24–672 mg•kg-1) and 3,681 mg•kg-1 (786–9,919 mg•kg-1), respectively. It is evident that the deicing salts spray has a significant effect on the accumulation of sodium and chloride in urban roadside soils and needles of Pinus tabulaeformis, as well as the occurrence of visible injuries.
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