Papers by Keyword: Solid Solution

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Authors: Shu Cai Zhou, Chen Guang Bai, Chun Lin Fu
Abstract: In order to reduce the oxidizing and volatilizing caused by Mg element in the traditional methods for synthesizing Mg2Sil-xSnx solid solutions, Mg2Sil-xSnx solid solutions have been prepared by Microwave-assisted Synthesis techniques. The heating behavior of Mg, Si and Sn fixed powder was investigated under microwave irradiation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the powders. The results suggest that the temperature-rising rate is also dependent on the initial green density and higher green density provides lower heating rate while power setting are fixed. XRD patterns show that Mg2Sil-xSnx solid solutions have been well formed under microwave irradiation.
Authors: Frida Ulfah Ermawati, Suasmoro Suasmoro, Suminar Pratapa
Abstract: A study of liquid mixing route to synthesize high purity Mg0.8Zn0.2TiO3 nanopowder, a candidate dielectric ceramics, has been successfully performed. Formation of the phases on the dried powder was studied using TG/DTA, XRD and FT-IR data. Rietveld analysis on the collected XRD patterns confirmed the formation of solid solution in the system. Such solid solution can be obtained from the powder calcined at 500 °C, but calcination at 550 °C gave rise to the most optimum molar purity up to 98.5% without intermediate phases. The role of Zn ions on the formation of solid solution was also discussed. Homogeneity of particle size distribution and nano-crystallinity of the system was verified from the particle size analyzer data, TEM image and the Rietveld analysis output.
Authors: P. Hidalgo, C.M. Cepeda-Jiménez, O.A. Ruano, F. Carreño
Abstract: The 7075 Al alloy was processed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) at 300, 350 and 400 °C. The microstructure and texture were characterized and the hardness was measured. Cell/(sub)grain sizes less than 500 nm and typical β-fibre rolling texture were observed in the three ARBed samples. At 400 °C, the presence of elements in solid solution leads to a poorly misoriented microstructure and to a homogeneous β-fibre texture. At 300 and 350 °C highly misoriented microstructure and heterogeneous β-fibre rolling texture are observed, especially at 350 °C, wherein the degree of dynamic recovery is higher. Hardness of the ARBed samples is affected by the amount of atoms in solid solution at the different processing temperatures.
Authors: David Marchat, Didier Bernache-Assollant, Eric Champion, Eric Bêche, Gilles Flamant
Abstract: The removal of cadmium from water by fixation into a calcium phosphate apatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (CaHA) was investigated in batch experiments. These ones were carried out using a wide range of initial Cd2+ concentration, three different temperatures, and several CaHA surface areas. The amount of immobilized cadmium was proportional to the surface area of CaHA, whatever the experimental parameters might be. It could reach 7.1 mol of Cd per mol of starting CaHA. Thermal and XPS analyses on the exchanged powders proved that a part of cadmium was quickly adsorbed at the grains surface in the form of hydrated complexes [Cd(OH2)n]2+. The latter were formed by an ionic exchange between adsorbed calcium and cadmium of the solution. Adsorption reaction was mainly limited by the number of specific sites available on the grains surface. Structural analyses showed that another part of Cd was slowly incorporated into a solid solution Ca10-xCdx(PO4)6(OH)2 (CaCdHA) onto the CaHA crystals surface. Results demonstrated unambiguously that the incorporation process was a surface precipitation and not an intracrystalline diffusion.
Authors: Katja Tonisch, Robert Benzig, Gernot Ecke, Jörg Pezoldt
Abstract: The growth of AlGaN solid solutions on 3C-SiC(111)/Si(111) is demonstrated. The residual stress of the grown layer was investigated by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and infrared ellipsometry. Analysis of the HRXRD data showed that the observed lattice distortion was caused partially by hydrostatic pressure and partially by biaxial tension. The residual stress depends on the layer composition and weakly on the growth temperature.
Authors: Masanori Hirano, Norio Kuno
Abstract: Composite nanoparticles (anatase-type Ti1-2XNbXAlXO2 solid solution/SiO2) were directly synthesized from precursor solutions in the presence of urea under mild hydrothermal conditions at 180 °C for 5 h. The crystallite size of anatase was gradually decreased with increased silica content in the composite nanoparticles formed under weakly basic hydrothermal conditions via the hydrolysis of urea. The composite nanoparticles with composition Ti0.9Nb0.05Al0.05O2/SiO2 = 100/10 mol% showed good photocatalytic activity. The anatase-to-rutile phase transformation in the course of heating in air was retarded to maintain the anatase-type structure up to more than 1050 °C without a trace of rutile phase by the formation of composite nanoparticles (Ti0.90Nb0.05Al0.05O2/SiO2 = 100/20 mol%) with amorphous silica.
Authors: Leonid Vasylechko, Olha Pekinchak, Vasyl Hreb, Yurii Prots, Dmitry Chernyshov, Andrew Fitch
Abstract: Series of the mixed cobaltites-ferrites RCo1xFexO3 (x = 0.1–0.9) and cobaltites-chromites RCo0.5Cr0.5O3 (R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er) with the orthorhombic perovskite structure (space group Pbnm) have been prepared from stoichiometric amounts of rare earth oxides, Co3O4, Fe2O3 and Cr2O3 by solid-state reaction in air at 1473–1573 K. In situ high-temperature X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction revealed anomalous lattice expansion of both series, which is reflected in a sigmoidal dependence of the unit cell dimensions and in abnormal anisotropic increase of the thermal expansion coefficients (TEC). Depending on the composition, several broad maxima in the temperature range of 500−1000 K are observed, which are evidently connected with the transitions of Co3+ cations to the higher spin states. The observed anomalies in the mixed cobaltites-ferrites and cobaltites-chromites are less pronounced compared with the corresponding “pure” cobaltites.
Authors: Jörg Pezoldt, Thomas Kups, Petia Weih, Thomas Stauden, Oliver Ambacher
Abstract: 3C-(Si1-xC1-y)Gex+y ternary alloys were grown on 8.5° off axis 4H-SiC substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy in a temperature range between 750°C and 950°C. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed a decrease of the Ge incorporation versus substrate temperature. This effect is due to the fixed Si/Ge ratio during the epitaxial growth. The Ge distribution within the grown epitaxial layers was found to be nearly homogeneous. The investigations by atomic location by channeling enhanced microanalysis allowed the conclusion that Ge is located mainly at Si lattice sites.
Authors: Yasumitsu Kondo
Abstract: Copper and nickel are accumulated in steels when steel scrap is used as steel sources. It is well known that copper causes hot shortness problem and nickel suppresses the effect of copper. In this paper, the behaviour of copper and nickel during oxidation is investigated. Steels containing copper and nickel were oxidized and the distribution of copper and nickel in the scale was examined. It was found that copper is not only enriched at the scale/metal interface but also exists in upper magnetite layer as a state of solid solution and along grain boundaries of the wustite layer as metal phase. From these results an assumption has been proposed that the liquid copper migrates from the scale/metal interface to the magnetite layer along the grain boundaries. On the other hand, nickel enriched in steel side near the scale/metal interface with copper. The metal particles containing nickel and copper remain inside the scale. Nickel also has an effect of the uneven scale/metal interface formation.
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