Papers by Keyword: Solvent Extraction

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Authors: Rong Hua Yang
Abstract: Phenazine with high purity above 99.5% was recovered from waste of industrial production of 4-amino-diphenylamine by using solid-liquid separation, solvent extraction, recrystallization, sublimation and rectification. The operating condition for the recovery of phenazine was assessed and optimal operation conditions were recommended. The yield of phenazine in the waste reaches 85% or so, the rest of the waste returns to the system for further use. This novel method increased waste utilization value and reduced production cost compared with the conventional process. This research saves the cost in phenazine synthesis and reduces waste emission.
Authors: Ying Bo Mao, Jian Jun Fang, Ya Wen, Shan Wang, Tie Min Zhang, Wen Juan Zhao
Abstract: Abstract: The extractant LIX84-I that extracted and stripped copper in the ammonia leach solution of copper oxidized ores solution of were mainly studied for the experimentation examined the influence of the LIX84-I concentration, the extraction time, the phase ratio, the pH , the stripping sulfuric acid concentration and the stripping time. Laboratory Investigations indicated that LIX84-I is really an efficient copper extractant with a maximum extraction of as high as 99.91% under the conditions of 5.23g/L Cu in leach solution, LIX84-I concentration 7%, 3 min mixtures, phase ratio 1/1and pH﹥4.5. The stripping can be conducted with the barren electrolyte as a stripping agent in which the sulfuric acid concentration remains about 150g/L, and a stripping rate of 99.92% is obtained.
Authors: Xiao Dong Ouyang, Shi Bao Dong, Li Ming Hu, Zhi Min Zong
Abstract: The acetone extracts from Shenfu coal (SFC) of China was filtered into filtrate and cake, and analyzed by GC/MS and FTIR respectively. The results indicate that: The GC/MS identifiable fraction mainly consists of polycyclic aromatics with 2-4 rings and their alkyl derivatives as main components, and polar oxygen compounds with ketones and esters as main components. A variety of nitrogen compounds and several compounds containing phosphor, sulfur, and chlorine were identified. IR spectrum shows that functional groups including hydroxyl, carbonyl, polycyclic aromatic ring, methylene, methyl, etc. are among the main groups of GC/MS unidentified fraction.
Authors: Ying Zong, Yuan Bao Sun, Yuan Li Zhao, Xian Yong Wei
Abstract: A subbitumious coal from Erdos, Inner Mongolia, China, was extracted with isometric carbon disulfide/tetrahydrofuran (CS2/THF) mixed solvent. The components and structure features of CS2/THF soluble factions were analyzed by FTIR and GC/MS. The results show that the total extract yield was 6.6% after five extractions with fresh mixed solvent. And the mass fraction of the first extract was biggest which the 68% amount of the total extracts was. The FTIR spectra of the extracts had abundance functional group information, which can fully indicate that the extracts contain aliphatic compounds, aromatic compounds and heteroatom-containing compounds. Only the first extract can be detected by GC/MS among the five extracts and seven compounds were detected by GC/MS clearly and they are aromatic compounds, in which the three larger relative abundance compounds are retene, 7-butyl-1-hexylnaphthalene and 7-isopropyl-1,1-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- phenanthrene.
Authors: Swati Pramanik, Sushanta K. Sahu, Pratima Meshram, Banshi Dhar Pandey
Abstract: During production of ammonium meta-vanadate from vanadium sludge an arsenic containing (~2.2g/L) spent liquor is generated. Safe disposal of such liquor without arsenic contamination to the environment is essential. Therefore, various methods such as ion-exchange, adsorption, solvent extraction and precipitation were applied for recovery of arsenic from the spent liquor. Based on the Eh-pH diagram of As-H2O, the arsenic based species were delineated. For ion exchange Lewatit FO 36 and Amberlite IRA 400 Cl- resins were used to extract arsenic from the spent liquor. With Lewatit FO 36 a maximum of 20% arsenic was recovered at A/R ratio of 50. Amberlite IRA 400 Cl- on the other hand didnt extract arsenic at all. A two stage solvent extraction process using TBP as an extractant, with a recovery of 97% arsenic from the spent liquor was developed. From the loaded TBP almost complete stripping of arsenic was obtained with 0.1-0.5M NaOH solution. Precipitation of arsenic from the spent liquor as copper arsenate or iron arsenate was also examined. During the fixation of arsenic with iron, 70% arsenic was recovered in the precipitate. This process needs to be evaluated further with the aim of using the iron hydroxide containing arsenic for different applications.
Authors: Shao Dan Peng, Li Jing Lin, Le Jun Ouyang, Bing Qing Zhu, Yuan Yuan, Wei Jing, Ji Hua Li
Abstract: In the study, the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for identifying and analysising the volatile compounds of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) fresh peel (FE) and fresh pulp (FU). The result showed that it was apparent differences of the species and quantities of volatile compounds between peel and pulp. 2,3-Butanediol, Butyrolactone, 1-Methoxy-2-propyl acetate, Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, butyl ester, n-Amyl isovalerate, n-Hexadecanoic acid were found in peel and pulp. While compounds, such as Geranylgeraniol, Lanosterol, Pentanoic acid, 3-phenylpropyl ester, Phthalic acid, butyl 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl ester, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, were only present in the peel. But in the pulp, compounds, like Dibutyl phthalate Phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)- henols were confirmed, which did not be found in the peel. The experimental result also indicated that SPME-GCMS is a simple, rapid, reliable and effective method to analyze the volatile fraction in jackfruit. It may have as profound an impact on analysising the volatile compounds of jackfruit.
Authors: Bing Qing Zhu, Li Jing Lin, Ji Hua Li, Guo Ti Lv, Mao Fang Huang
Abstract: Four different extraction methods, solvent extraction, ultrasonic wave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction, were used to extract oil from Macadamia integrifolia, which also named Macadamia nut oil. Fatty acid compositions of Macadamia nut oil were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed the highest extraction rate was 74.63% via Soxhlet extraction, while supercritical CO2 extraction was 70.53%, ultrasonic wave-assisted extraction was 57.19% and Solvent extraction was 50.37%. Six unsaturated fatty acids, including Z-9-Hexadecenoic acid, E-11-Hexadecenoic acid, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, 9-Octadecenoic acid, E-9-Octadecenoic acid and 9-eicosenoate, were identified in the oil by GC-MS.The relative extraction rate of unsaturated fatty acids were 36.53%, 44.21%, 60.62%, 56.81%, respectively. Though the extraction rate was the highest via Soxhlet extraction, the relative content of Z-9-Hexadecenoic acid and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid were both higher extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction than Soxhlet extraction, which were 15.38% and 1.55%,. As supercritical CO2 extraction has no solvent residual problem, it would be the trend of the development inSubscript text the future to extract Macadamia nut oil.
Authors: Noor Aiysah Aris, I. Norhuda, Idris S. Adeib
Abstract: Oil yield extraction from Phoenix dactylifera seed was compared at 50°C based on highest oil yield results using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction method. The comparison was based on the efficiency of the method to extract high quality pure oil without addition of organic solvent. Time taken to extract the oil was also evaluated as part of the method’s performance. Analysis of component in the oil was done using gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oleic acid revealed to be the main fatty acid in Phoenix dactylifera seed oil, followed by palmitic acid, lauric acid, ascorbyl palmitate and others.
Authors: Paulo Lima, Henrique Takuji Fukuma, Sandra Nakamatsu, Maria Gabriela Nogueira Campos, Maria Gabriela Nogueira Campos, Erika Coaglia Trindade Ramos, Neide Aparecida Mariano
Abstract: In some mines where sulfide minerals can occur in form of pyrite acid mine drainage (AMD) may occur, and it constitutes one of the main environmental impact. In order to prevent that AMD compromises aquifers layers and reaches mine surroundings, a treatment that consists in its neutralization with the use of a hydrated lime suspension is usually conducted. Contaminants that are soluble in AMD are precipitated, remaining in the solid phase. The work here presented aims recover uranium and rare earths found in one of these precipitates, which consists of calcium diuranate and metal hydroxides in a calcium sulfate matrix. This material contains approximately 0.25% of triuranium octoxide (U3O8) and 2.5% of rare earth oxides (TR2O3). The recovery of uranium and rare earths contained in the precipitate was performed through a hydrometallurgical process. The test resulted in a leaching with sulfuric acid presented solubilization of 96% for uranium and 90% for rare earths. A percentage yield of 99.7% and 99.9% was obtained in the steps of uranium extraction and re-extraction from the leachate, respectively.
Authors: M. Rafi Raza, Faiz Ahmad, M.A. Omar, R.M. German, Ali S. Muhsan
Abstract: Austenitic Stainless Steel Has a FCC Structure at Room Temperature and the Temperature Range of the Austenite Phase Depends upon its Composition. 316L SS Is Widely Used in Medical, Marine, Industrial, Sporting and Aerospace Applications due to its Excellent Combination of Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance. this Study Presents the Defects Observed during Optimization of the Processing Parameters for the Fabrication of Powder Injection Molding (PIM) of 316L SS Parts. in this Study, Five Formulations of Feedstock Containing 60-71vol% of Metal Powder Were Prepared Using a Wax-Based Binder. Green Samples Were Injection-Moulded, Followed by Binder Removal by Solvent and Thermal Means. Paraffin Wax (major Binder) Was Extracted at Various Temperatures in Order to Determine the Solvent Extraction Temperature. the Thermal De-Binding Was Performed Successfully at a Temperature of 450°C by Varying the Heating Rate from 1°C/min -10°C/min. SEM Results Showed Complete Removal of the Plastic Binder. Test Samples Were Sintered at Various Temperatures and Atmospheres. the Defects Observed during Solvent Extraction Were Swelling, Cracks and, at the Thermal De-Binding Step, Collection of Binder, Swelling and Holes. Sintered Samples Showed a Loss of Dimensional Control. these Types of Defect Were Considered to Be due to Inappropriate Heating Rates, Temperature and Dwell Time at each Process Step.
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