Papers by Keyword: Steel

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Authors: Andreas Krause, Hanns Kache, Georg Ullmann
Abstract: The early detection of defects in forged parts offers economical advantages due to the possibility of sorting them out of the process chain betimes. Hence, no further production costs are occurred by those parts. However, the detection of defects during forging processes is not state of the art. Usually defects of forged parts which are often not obvious and therefore cannot be identified by the press operator are detected by measurements after cooling or later by the customer. In both cases costs occur. Due to the rough conditions in forging shop floors (e. g. high temperatures and forces) the integration of sensors monitoring the forging process is hardly viable. Within the presented research project an in-situ forging process monitoring system is developed which works without sensors in the forging tool and shows results on the process quality directly after forging. A system consisting of two independent concepts (defect-identification and filling-identification) is developed to detect typical forging process failures. On the one hand the defect-identification is able to detect e.g. wrong press energy or insert-position. On the other hand the filling-identification aims to detect, if the cavity is completely filled by the work-piece. Both concepts work in real-time with the help of a computer and a screen visualising the results. One the one hand this paper presents the results of forging trials using the defect-identification and evaluates its capability. On the other hand the concept for the filling identification is presented.
Authors: Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar
Abstract: Laser as a source of focused energy may be applied for the modification of microstructure and/or composition of the near surface region of a component. The technique may be applied for the development of a ceramic/intermetallics/interstitial compound dispersed metal matrix composite layer on the surface of metallic substrate by melting the substrate with a high power laser and simultaneous addition of alloy powders for the development of metal matrix composite layer by in-situ reactions. In the present contribution, development of metal-dispersed and intermetallic-dispersed matrix composite layer on the surface of metallic matrix has been discussed with a suitable example of its application.
Authors: Mihály Réger, Balázs Verő, Árpád Szélig
Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of solidification, cooling and expected properties of continuously cast slabs. Semi-empirical models based on theoretical consideration and on the results of heat transfer model are used for characterization of the following: surface and inner temperature distribution of the cast semis, liquid sump depth and shape, liquid motion intensity resulting in centerline segregation, parameters of the primary dendritic structure (primary and secondary dendritic spacings, columnar to equiaxed transition position, CET). This method provides an opportunity to make a realistic comparison between the solidification and final properties of semis with different chemical compositions as a function of applied casting technologies. The final goal of this research activity in the future is to define a comprehensive quality function for optimizing continuous casting technology.
Authors: Min You, Jia Ling Yan, Xiao Ling Zheng, Ding Feng Zhu, Jing Rong Hu
Abstract: The effect of the adhesive thickness and elastic modulus on the stress distribution in the mid-bondline of the adhesively-bonded steel/steel joint under impact loading is analyzed using 3-D finite element method (FEM). The results show that the stress distributed in bondline near the interface was significantly affected by the adhesive thickness and the elastic modulus. When the thickness increased from 1 mm to 2 mm, the values of all the stress components increased evidently along the upper edge of the adhesive but decreased significantly along the lower edge near the loading face. When the elastic modulus of the adhesive was increased, all the stresses increased along either the upper or the lower edge. It is clear that the suitable thickness and the elastic modulus of the adhesive are very important when the adhesively bonded joints subjected to the impacting load.
Authors: Hemantha Kumar Yeddu, John Ågren, Annika Borgenstam
Abstract: Complex martensitic microstructure evolution in steels generates enormous curiosity among the materials scientists and especially among the Phase Field (PF) modeling enthusiasts. In the present work PF Microelasticity theory proposed by A.G. Khachaturyan coupled with plasticity is applied for modeling the Martensitic Transformation (MT) by using Finite Element Method (FEM). PF simulations in 3D are performed by considering different cases of MT occurring in a clamped system, i.e. simulation domain with fixed boundaries, of (a) pure elastic material with dilatation (b) pure elastic material without dilatation (c) elastic perfectly plastic material with dilatation having (i) isotropic as well as (ii) anisotropic elastic properties. As input data for the simulations the thermodynamic parameters corresponding to Fe - 0.3% C alloy as well as the physical parameters corresponding to steels acquired from experimental results are considered. The results indicate that elastic strain energy, dilatation and plasticity affect MT whereas anisotropy affects the microstructure.
Authors: Osvaldo Vallati, Fabrizio Gara, Gianluca Ranzi, Graziano Leoni
Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of available numerical structural formulations for the short-and long-term analysis of composite beams with partial shear interaction. Four methods of analysis are considered and these include the finite difference method, the finite element method, the direct stiffness method and the exact analytical model. The results obtained using these formulations are compared qualitatively and their accuracy is estimated, adopting the exact analytical model as a benchmark reference with the objective of establishing the minimum spatial discretisations required to keep the error within an acceptable tolerance. These comparisons are carried out for two static configurations, i.e. simply-supported beams and propped cantilevers, from which the qualitative behaviour of these formulations in the modelling of continuous beams can also be deduced.
Authors: M. Borrell, R.I. Grynszpan, N. Ji
Authors: Clark Hyland, W. George Ferguson
Abstract: A method for assessing likelihood of brittle fracture in cyclically loaded steel assemblies subjected to inelastic strains is proposed. The method proposed is based upon relationships between monotonic and cyclic endurance of steel specimens proposed by Kuwamura and Takagi, and analysis of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), Charpy V-Notch (CVN) and tensile results of pre-strained, fatigue pre-cracked and side-grooved specimens of constructional steel. The proposed method allows the influence of displacement ductility classification (as used in seismic design of structures), notch geometry, and cyclic strain amplitude history on crack initiation to be incorporated into a single design analysis approach. Small scale CTOD testing of steel materials with various levels of pre-strain may be used to identify stress intensity and crack tip displacement at crack initiation for use in the analysis. The integration of a fracture mechanics based approach to analysing stress intensity in conjunction with assembly plastic deformation characteristics derived from finite element modeling offers the promise of an improved approach to steel assembly design for cyclic plastic endurance and should result in more reliable structures and reduced need for large scale testing. This has particular relevance to the structural design of seismic resisting steelwork assemblies which are expected to develop dependable ductile behaviour under high strain variable amplitude cyclic actions.
Authors: Michael Modigell, Torsten Volkmann, Christoph Zang
Abstract: Rheometrical analysis of steel slurries in rotational rheometers requires a range of operating temperatures of about 1300 to 1600 °C, leading to a delicate device-related challenge with respect to the applied materials on the one hand and a suitable constructional set-up gaining unbiased measurements on the other hand. Accordingly, a new high-precision rotational rheometer for temperatures up to 1700 °C has been developed as an improvement on an existing rheometer previously developed at the Chair of Mechanical Process Engineering (AVT) of RWTH Aachen University. First measurements on the tool steel X210CrW12 in the mushy state with solid fractions of 20% to 40% demonstrate a remarkable improvement on the preciseness of torque gain which broadens the area of possible experimental operations on steel slurries in order to reliably characterize transient behavior of the material by e.g. creep, relaxation and oscillation experiments.
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