Papers by Keyword: Stress-Strain Curve

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Authors: Hyun Ho Shin, Ho Yun Lee, Jong Bong Kim, Yo Han Yoo
Abstract: A short split Hopkinson bar system with a total bar length of 3 m (a 2 m input bar plus a 1 m output bar), a striker length of 254 mm, and a diameter of 25.4 mm, is designed. Through numerical experiments, the stress vs. strain curve and the rate vs. strain curve of the specimen are obtained from the bar signals. These measured curves are reasonably consistent with the input stress-strain curve of the specimen for the numerical experiment and the prediction by the recently reported rate equation, respectively, verifying the reliability of the designed SHPB system.
Authors: Yoshinobu Motohashi, Makoto Kikuchi, Takaaki Sakuma, Eitaro Yukutake, Isao Kuboki
Abstract: During superplastic deformation (SPD) of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals containing 3 mol% yttria (3Y-TZP) at high strain-rates, a number of crack-like flat cavities having very narrow gaps lying along grain boundaries mostly normal to the tensile axis are produced in addition to conventional cavities. The formation and growth of these flat cavities are responsible for the strain softening that appears on the true stress versus true strain curves. The growth and coalescence of the flat cavities were a main cause of the degradation of elongation to fracture. We have found that a simple treatment, in which the superplastic deformation is temporally stopped, i.e., the cross-head movement is reversed and accordingly the applied load is removed, and then the specimen is kept at the test temperature for several minutes, is surprisingly effective to reduce the flat cavities. Carrying out this simple treatment repeatedly, after 30% nominal stain during the SPD, led to an increace in total elongation by about three times larger than that of a specimen not subjected to such a treatment. This treatment can also recover the strength and accordingly mechanical properties of the superplastically deformed 3Y-TZP to that of the undeformed state. This finding is believed to be quite significant for practical applications of superplasticity in 3Y-TZP, because the flat cavities can be closed very simply by keeping a product at the forming temperature after or during the superplastic forming process.
Authors: Yun Guan, Qing Feng Chen, Jia Yan Ma, Zhao Jun Deng
Abstract: The multi-pass compression deformation of low carbon bainitie steel was carried out on a thermal simulator between a temperature range of 1050~800°Cwith accumulated 60.7% deformation and a deformation rate of 2s-1. The recrystallization behavior of the tested steel during high temperature deformation was discussed after comparatively analyzing the stress-stain curves and austenite deformation structures under different deformation conditions. The results show that with the same strain rate and total deformation, the grain size of recrystallized austenite is mainly determined by pass temperature and pass deformation, especially the latter, while has little relation with quantity of pass. The ultimate deformation stress is determined by ultimate deformation temperature and improved by the increasing quantity of pass.
Authors: Bohayra Mortazavi, Akbar Afaghi Khatibi
Abstract: Molecular Dynamics (MD) are now having orthodox means for simulation of matter in nano-scale. It can be regarded as an accurate alternative for experimental work in nano-science. In this paper, Molecular Dynamics simulation of uniaxial tension of some face centered cubic (FCC) metals (namely Au, Ag, Cu and Ni) at nano-level have been carried out. Sutton-Chen potential functions and velocity Verlet formulation of Noise-Hoover dynamic as well as periodic boundary conditions were applied. MD simulations at different loading rates and temperatures were conducted, and it was concluded that by increasing the temperature, maximum engineering stress decreases while engineering strain at failure is increasing. On the other hand, by increasing the loading rate both maximum engineering stress and strain at failure are increasing.
Authors: Bruno Atzori, Giovanni Meneghetti, Mauro Ricotta
Abstract: The fatigue behaviour of materials is usually synthesised in terms of stress-life (S-N) curve or in terms of strain-life (e-N) curve, the latter being described by the so-called Manson-Coffin equation. It is known that the assumption of equality of the plastic and elastic components between the Manson-Coffin and the stabilised stress-strain curves leads to the so-called compatibility conditions which connect the equations theoretically. The material constants of the Manson-Coffin and of the stabilised stress-strain curve are commonly determined by best fitting separately the experimental data obtained from strain-controlled fatigue tests. As a consequence the compatibility conditions may not be fulfilled. In this paper a method for fatigue data analysis that ensures the compatibility conditions is proposed and validated against experimental data.
Authors: J. Mulder, Henk Vegter, Holger Aretz, A.H. van den Boogaard
Abstract: Optical measuring systems provide much more detail on the deformation of the blank in the bulge test than conventional contact height measuring systems. A significant increase in accuracy of the stress-strain curve can be achieved by fitting the surface to more complicated equations than the traditional spherical surface and by considering the local strain data to approximate the curvature for the midplane. In particular an ellipsoid shape is shown to be very accurate in describing the surface of the blank. Contact height measuring systems provide insufficient data to fit a surface to an ellipsoid shape and to establish local strain data. Pragmatic equations are proposed using the work hardening coefficient from the tensile test to approximate the same accuracy in stress-strain curves as obtained by optical measuring systems using the before mentioned evaluation method.
Authors: J. Mulder, Henk Vegter, A.H. van den Boogaard
Abstract: Optical measuring systems enable a very accurate determination of the flow stress for the hydraulic bulge test. The flow stress is strain rate and temperature dependent and for the description of work hardening an approximation of the temperature during the test is required. Measuring the temperature during the test usually interferes with the optical strain measurement. A model for the temperature distribution on the bulged surface is developed based on heat generated by plastic work, convection to air on the outer surface, conduction to the tools at the die diameter and conduction to oil on the inside. The plastic work is derived from an approximation of the shape of the bulged surface and an approximation for the thickness distribution, starting from the initial thickness at the die ring to the established thickness at the pole, making use of volume conservation for the bulged sheet. The parameters of the model are tuned to bulge test temperature measurements of four different steel grades using a thermo couple at the pole. The results of the analytical temperature model are in good agreement with the measurements.
Authors: Jae Hyun Kim, Hyun Ju Choi, Bong Kyun Jang, Hak Joo Lee, Byung Ik Choi
Abstract: In this study, we propose an interesting scheme for analyzing micro-pillar compression test results based on finite element method. It uses only load and displacement data measured by micro-pillar compression test, a framework of conventional incremental metal plasticity, and an iterative scheme for updating the material parameters. This is an inverse approach to determine the constitutive relation of materials based on experimentally measured load and displacement. As a demonstrative example, Ni-Co micro-pillars with a diameter of 10 ㎛ and a height of 20 ㎛ were fabricated by micro-machining process, and their load-displacement data were measured by a micro-pillar compression tester. Using the proposed scheme and the measured load-displacement data, the stress-strain curves for the Ni-Co micro-pillars were estimated.
Authors: Hai Feng Yang, Zhi Heng Deng, Ying Huang
Abstract: 43 Φ50mm × 100mm column stress - strain curve tests are completed through RMT-201, which studied the compressive stress - strain curves of recycled aggregate concretes at distinct confining pressures under conventional triaxial stress state. This article, has analyzed the influence of different water-cement ratios, confining pressures on the curves, and raised constitutive equations of triaxial compression stress - strain curves for the different strength of recycled aggregate concretes.The brittleness indexes for recycled aggregate concrete under distinct confining pressures were analyzed contrastively. The result showed that: the failure modes of recycled aggregate concrete specimens are similar to those of ordinary concretes, but the final failure patterns of recycled aggregate and ordinary aggregate are quite different; with the increase of lateral pressure, the peak stress and peak strain of recycled aggregate concrete show linear growth; recycled aggregate concrete compressive stress - strain curves under the uniaxial and triaxial stress states are similar to ordinary aggregate concrete, yet peak strain shows signs of larger growth; with the increase of lateral pressure, the brittleness of recycled aggregate concrete reduces. The brittleness index of high-strength recycled aggregate concrete is larger wholly than that of ordinary recycled aggregate concrete and with confining pressure reaching a certain value, the brittleness index remains stable.
Authors: Jozef Bocko, Michael Dorn, Viera Nohajová
Abstract: This article introduces evolutionary algorithms and their utilization in mechanical engineering. First part of this work describes evolutionary algorithms and their characteristica. The main body of evolutionary algorithms, the selection methods for parents and the types of reproduction are explained in the next part of this article. Termination conditions are also discussed. Finally, the application of evolutionary algorithms to a problem in mechanical engineering is described. Thereby, the material parameters for a Bodner-Partom model describing visco-elastoplastic material behavior are determined by fitting data from experiments on Aluminum test samples under tension load.
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