Papers by Keyword: Surface Finish

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Authors: Rui Jian, Jun Zhao
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the problem of license plate recognition of vehicles. A recognition algorithm based on dynamic sliding window to binarize license plate characters is proposed. While a connected domain approach is presented to cope with the degradation characters. There are three steps to recognize the characters. First, the characters are classified by their features. Then, based on such classification a grid method is used to construct the feature vector. Finally, least square support vector machine is employed to recognize these characters. The test results show the high recognition rate and also illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Authors: J. Jiang, Yong Bo Wu, Xu Yue Wang, M. Kato
Abstract: This paper presents a new magnetic polishing liquid (MPL) produced by mixing sub-micron or micron order abrasive particles into a magnetic compound fluid (MCF) and its fundamental performance in surface finishing. MCF is an intelligent fluid, which is developed by mixing a magnetic fluid (MF) and a Magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) into a solvent, and hence reacting upon magnetic fields. In the present work, seven kinds of kerosene-based MPLs were prepared. The hydrodynamic characteristics of MPLs such as the viscosities under different magnetic fields were investigated. The obtained result indicated that the viscosity increases with the growing of the magnetic field and that the type of MPL affects greatly the viscosity. This phenomenon was discussed by observing the magnetic clusters formed in MPL. It was observed that the magnetic clusters are distributed along the magnetic fluxes. An experimental result indicated that the surface roughness varies with polishing time and gets smallest at a certain value of magnetic field strength.
Authors: P.S. Satsangi, K.D. Chattopadhyay
Abstract: The use of thermo-electric source of energy, as in electrical discharge machining (EDM), has greatly helped in machining all types of electrically conductive materials being used in different industrial applications. The present work investigates the different machining characteristics during electrical discharge machining on EN-8 steel with a rotary copper electrode. The effects of three independent machining parameters viz. peak current, pulse on time and rotational speed of tool electrode are chosen as variables for evaluating the output parameters such as metal removal rate, surface finish of work piece. The research focuses on developing empirical models for prediction of metal removal rate and surface finish during rotary electrical discharge machining process with the help of input parameters. The models are developed using linear regression analysis by applying logarithmic data transformation of non-linear equation. Analysis of results using partial and multiple correlation analysis reveals that electrical parameters have more significant effect than the non-electrical parameters on the machining characteristics during electrical discharge machining by a rotary electrode. Furthermore, when high MRR is criterion, high peak current and low RPM with low pulse duration produces better output; whereas, and when smooth surface finish is criterion, low peak current and low RPM with high pulse duration produces better output. In addition, the predictions based on the above developed models are verified with extra experiments and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental verifications.
Authors: Kazutaka Sakurai, Ryuta Nakatsukasa, Mamoru Hayashi, Toshiyuki Obikawa
Abstract: This paper is related to the air jet assisted machining method for a titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V ELI. The air jet assisted machining method is a new machining method, in which jet of the compressed air is applied to a tool tip together with flood coolant for reducing tool wear and also for extending tool life. In this experimental study, the new method was used in high-speed end milling for confirming the effect on tool life extension. Also, the optimal position of the jet nozzle was found. It was spotted that the new method is highly effective in reducing tool wear even at a high cutting speed. It is particularly noticeable that flank wear near the corner land, which is often severely damaged, was considerably reduced by the method. It turned out that the cutting forces and the degree of surface roughness observed through this method were almost the same as those through an ordinary method with flood coolant alone.
Authors: Yunn Shiuan Liao, Chun Lin Huang
Abstract: Micro milling has been known to behave quite differently from conventional macro milling. The effect of cutting speed on the machined surface roughness in micro milling of ductile materials was investigated in this paper. The micro flat end milling cutters of the diameters of 0.5 mm and 0.3 mm were taken to machine 6061 aluminum alloy and S20C low carbon steel. For comparison purpose, the cutter of the diameter of 10 mm was tested as well. It is found that the machined surface finish is closely related to the cutting speed. For a large size cutter, the roughness decreases with the increase of cutting speed as expected. But the decreasing trend is valid only up to a certain speed for the small diameter cutters. It is also noted that beyond this speed limit broken and powder type chips form easily. These chips will adhere to the machined surface and tool face and deteriorate machined surface as a result. Based on this finding, an approach by directing the cutting fluid to the cutting zone via high pressure air assistance is proposed. It is verified that the cutting force and its variation are greatly reduced, tool wear becomes less, and finish of the machined surface is significantly improved.
Authors: Qi Wu, Jun Wang
Abstract: An experimental study of the pulsed laser milling process for a sintered polycrystalline diamond is presented. The characteristics and quality of the cavities machined with a Yd laser under different pulse energies, pulse overlaps, scan overlaps and numbers of passes are discussed, together with the effects of these parameters on the cavity profile, depth of cut and surface roughness. A statistical analysis is also presented to study the relationship between the process parameters and surface roughness. It shows that the optimum pulse overlap and pulse energy may be used to achieve good surface finish, whereas scan overlap and number of passes can be selected to improve the depth of cut without much effect on the surface finish.
Authors: Ming Jun Chen, Ziang Li, Kang Jun Luo, Ying Chun Liang, Zhen Fang, Bo Yu
Abstract: Fused silica glass is widely used on the manufacture of optical apparatus and resonators due to it’s interesting optical and vibration properties. In order to machining the complex structures in the resonators and optical apparatus, grinding process with inclined ball-headed diamond wheel is discussed. Analytical model of the grinding process with inclined ball-headed diamond wheel was built firstly. Afterwards grinding experiments were conducted by varying the feed speed, the rotation speed, the cutting depth and the average grain size of the ball-headed diamond wheel. The machining surfaces were characterized by surface profiler to investigate the effect of the grinding parameters on the surface roughness. The measurement result shows the average grain size of the diamond wheel has important influence on the machining surface and the surface roughness at the groove bottom is better than the groove edge due to the wheel axis tilt angle.
Authors: Agostino Maurotto, Anish Roy, Vladimir I. Babitsky, Vadim V. Silberschmidt
Abstract: Efficient machining of advanced Ti- and Ni-based alloys, which are typically difficult-to-machine, is a challenge that needs to be addressed by the industry. During a typical machining operation of such alloys, high cutting forces imposed by a tool on the work-piece material lead to severe deformations in the process zone, along with high stresses, strains and temperatures in the material, eventually affecting the quality of finished work-piece. Conventional machining (CT) of Ti- and Ni-based alloys is typically characterized by low depths of cuts and relatively low feed rates, thus adversely affecting the material removal rates (MRR) in the machining process. In the present work, a novel machining technique, known as Ultrasonically Assisted Turning (UAT) is shown to dramatically improve machining of these intractable alloys. The developed machining process is capable of high MRR with an improved surface quality of the turned work-piece. Average cutting forces are significantly lower in UAT when compared to those in traditional turning techniques at the same machining parameters, demonstrating the capability of vibration-assisted machining as a viable machining method for the future.
Authors: Satya Prema, G.Y. Shreeshail, T.M. Chandrashekharaiah
Abstract: The Al-Si alloy is a structural material which generally consists of two or more particulates. However, Al-Si alloys are the most common alloys and commercially available ones due to their economical production. The utilization of Al-Si alloys has given the scope of study to improve in its properties using some grain refiner like Al-5Ti-1B, Al-3B and modifiers like Al-10Sr. The Al alloys were selected based on the economical uses and also, on the basis such that hypoeutectic (i.e., LM-25), eutectic (i.e., LM-6) and hypereutectic (i.e., LM-30). This project aimed to synthesize Al alloys (LM-6, LM-25 and LM-30) by melt stirring method with varying amount of grain refiners and / or modifier. The Prepared composites were characterized for machining properties. Alloys were evaluated for their machining properties which include surface roughness, lathe and drill tool dynamometer and comparing the machining properties with the minor addition of grain refienrs and/or modifier. The study concluded that, the addition of Al-3B to eutectic (i.e., LM-6) alloys has better surface finish.
Authors: Xavier Salueña Berna, Jose Antonio Ortiz Marzo, Jasmina Casals Terré
Abstract: The main objectives of this work are the study of the obtained surface roughness on steels, using face cutting edge inserts milling tools in finishing face milling operations with microlubrication (MQL), and comparison of the results obtained with the widely-used radius inserts. This experimental study analyzes the roughness and surface appearance obtained with both sort of inserts. The interest about this study is to determine the steel types and the optimal cutting conditions for milling with this face cutting edge inserts. Another result analysed is the utility of the MQL implementation compared to the dry system.
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