Papers by Keyword: Surface Plasma Modes

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Authors: D. Cirillo, Emilio del Giudice, Roberto Germano, S. Sivasubrammanian, Yogendra N. Srivastava, V. Tontodonato, G. Vitiello, Allan Widom
Abstract: In the conceptual framework of Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) it has been proventhat liquid water is made up of two phases : 1) a coherent phase where the electron cloud of watermolecules oscillates in phase with a trapped electromagnetic field within extended regions, calledCoherence Domains (CD); 2) a non coherent phase formed by a gas-like ensemble of molecules fillingthe interstices among the CD's. The constituentmolecules of the coherent phase oscillate between theirindividual ground state and an excited state where one electron is so loosely bound to be consideredquasi-free. Therefore the coherent phase contains a plasma of quasi-free electrons. In the bulk water,as in the case of superfluid liquid Helium, each molecule crosses over continuously between the twophases. On the contrary, close to the surface of a metallic cathode in a chemical cell , the attractionbetween molecules and wall stabilizes the coherent phases so that the layer of interfacial water ismainly coherent and capable of holding a negative electronic charge. When the chemical cell voltageexceeds a threshold, an i! nterfacial water- cathode metal surface plasma mode is developed. Fromthe collective energies continuously pumped into the plasma, the weak interaction e + p+ → n + νemay be induced which produces neutrons and neutrinos from Hydrogen atoms. The neutrons may thenultimately induce other nuclear transmutations on the cathode metal surface.
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