Papers by Keyword: Ultrafine Grained

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Authors: Qing Wei Jiang, Lin Xiao, Xiao Wu Li
Abstract: The temperature-dependent deformation and damage behaviors of ultrafine-grained (UFG) Cu and Ti produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) were investigated and compared. It was found that ECAPed materials with different crystalline structures, e.g. the present fcc Cu and hcp Ti, exhibited significantly distinctive high-temperature deformation and damage characteristics. As the testing temperature is below recrystallization, small- and large-scale cracks or voids formed along the shear bands (SBs) on the surface of UFG Cu, whereas only a few fine shear lines and some non-propagation voids appeared on the surface of UFG Ti. As the temperature is above recrystallization, some small cracks (or voids) formed along grain boundaries and slip deformation took place in many coarsened grains, while only extrusions and intrusions instead of obvious cracks or voids are observable for UFG Ti. The corresponding microstructual changes after compressive deformation, e.g. grain coarsening, were also examined and confirmed by TEM observations.
Authors: J. Zhang
Abstract: Cyclic extrusion is a new bulk deformation method. It consists of two steps. In the first step a part of the work piece will be indirectly extruded. In the second step the extruded part will be backwards pressed into the bulk again so that the original shape of the work piece is retained. Similar to ECAP, cyclic extrusion can be repeated many times without shape change. On the other hand, cyclic extrusion can be applied locally on a work piece so that local grain refining or work hardening is possible. Magnesium alloy AZ31 was cyclically extruded at 400 °C with different tools. The grain size was refined from 800 +m to 15 +m. The local grain refining in the surface zone with cyclic extrusion improved the rollability of cast AZ31. Pure aluminium specimens were cyclically extruded up to 2.5 times, which corresponds to a deformation degree of -7. The microstructure changes were examined with EBSD.
Authors: Ji Luo, Zhi Rui Wang
Abstract: Recently, the necessity to grade grain size to ultrafine and nano scale for understanding the mechanical behavior of these materials has been recognized. However, the nature of such classification has remained unclear. As an example, ultrafine (100 nm -1 μm) and nano (<100 nm) grained FCC metals, compared to their coarse grained counterparts, exhibit a grain size strengthening that may deviate from the Hall-Petch relationship. To explain the mechanism of such deviation, previous dislocation theories seem insufficient. To solve this problem, a critical grain size criterion governing the shift of deformation mechanism is proposed in this work. This model employs an energetic approach; it relates the grain boundary energy density to certain critical energy values; and it permits, for the first time, a quantitative grading of grain sizes. Predictions based on this model were evaluated. The prediction on copper polycrystals of various grain sizes showed a very good agreement with experimental results. It is thus wished that the grain size theory on plastic deformation mechanism could be unified with the dislocation theory. In this study, such unification is attempted by using a parameter defined as the defect energy density. The possibility of such generalization is further reasoned upon the fact that the defect energy approach should be a unique but common form applicable for both dislocations and grain boundaries.
Authors: Margarita Slámová, Petr Homola, P. Sláma, Miroslav Karlík, Miroslav Cieslar, Yoshitatsu Ohara, Nobuhiro Tsuji
Abstract: Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) is a technique of grain refinement by severe plastic deformation, which involves multiple repetitions of surface treatment, stacking, rolling, and cutting. The rolling with 50% reduction in thickness bonds the sheets. After several cycles, ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials are produced. Since ARB enables the production of large amounts of UFG materials, its adoption into industrial practice is favoured. ARB has been successfully used for preparation of UFG sheets from different ingot cast aluminium alloys. Twin-roll casting (TRC) is a cost and energy effective method for manufacturing aluminium sheets. Fine particles and small grain size are intrinsic for TRC sheets making them good starting materials for ARB. The paper presents the results of a research aimed at investigating the feasibility of ARB processing of three TRC alloys, AA8006, AA8011 and AA5754, at ambient temperature. The microstructure and properties of the ARB were investigated by means of light and transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurements. AA8006 specimens were ARB processed without any problems. Sound sheets of AA8011 alloy were also obtained even after 8 cycles of ARB. The AA5754 alloy suffered from severe edge and notch cracking since the first cycle. The work hardening of AA8006 alloy saturated after the 3rd cycle, whereas the hardness of AA5754 alloy increased steadily up to the 5th cycle. Monotonous increase in strength up to 280 MPa was observed in the ARB processed AA8011 alloy.
Authors: Seung Won Lee, Daichi Akama, Z. Horita, Tetsuya Masuda, Shoichi Hirosawa, Kenji Matsuda
Abstract: This study presents an application of high-pressure torsion (HPT) to an Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloy (2091). The alloy was subjected to solid solution treatment at 505oC for 30 minutes and was processed by HPT under 6 GPa for 5 revolutions at room temperature. The hardness increased with straining and saturated to a constant level at 225 Hv. Aging was undertaken on the HPT-processed alloy at 100, 150 and 190oC for the total periods up to 9.3 days. The aging treatment led to a further increase in the hardness to ~275 Hv. It is shown that the simultaneous strengthening of the alloy due to grain refinement and age hardening was successfully achieved by application of HPT and subsequent aging treatment. The enhancement of the strength is prominent when compared with the application of a conventional rolling process.
Authors: Hirotaka Matsunaga, Z. Horita, Kazutaka Imamura, Takanobu Kiss, Xavier Sauvage
Abstract: An age-hardenable Cu-2.9%Ni-0.6%Si alloy was subjected to high-pressure torsion. Aging behavior was investigated in terms of hardness, electrical conductivity and microstructural features. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size is refined to ~150 nm and the Vickers microhardness was significantly increased through the HPT process. Aging treatment of the HPT-processed alloy led to a further increase in the hardness. Electrical conductivity is also improved with the aging treatment. It was confirmed that the simultaneous strengthening by grain refinement and fine precipitation is achieved while maintaining high electrical conductivity. Three dimensional atom probe analysis revealed that fine precipitates with sizes of ~20 nm or smaller were formed in the Cu matrix and some particles consist of Ni and Si with no appreciable amount of Cu.
Authors: R. Kapoor, P.S. De, Rajiv S. Mishra
Abstract: This paper brings together and compares data of various ultrafine grained (UFG) Al alloys processed through different routes. In general, the trend of decreasing ductility with increasing strength was observed for the UFG alloys. As compared to the coarse grained (CG) alloys, the UFG alloys show a lower ductility, a lower extent of work-hardening and a lower uniform elongation. Unlike the CG alloys, which show a large fraction of uniform to total elongation, in UFG alloys this fraction varies with processing technique. It is shown here that aging of some UFG Al alloys improves ductility. Further, it is shown that increasing the equivalent strain of pre-deformation increases ductility. From this it was inferred that high angle grain boundaries have an important influence on ductility. The variation of ductility with strain rate sensitivity has been found to match both the analytical prediction as well as data of various materials.
Authors: Anton Hohenwarter, Reinhard Pippan
Abstract: Motivated by the large variety of enhanced properties of ultrafine and nanocrystalline materials such materials are under extensive investigation. Besides focusing on classical material parameters, like strength and ductility, the fracture toughness of these materials is also of great importance, especially when the damage tolerance is required. In this contribution an overview of the fracture behavior of different metals covering ultrafine-grained iron and nickel as well as a nanocrystalline steel processed via high pressure torsion (HPT) will be given. It will be shown that the specimen orientation can have a tremendous influence on the fracture behavior and toughness. Due to this toughness anisotropy an unexpectedly good combination of high strength and high fracture toughness can be achieved very often in these materials.
Authors: Taku Sakai, Hiromi Miura
Abstract: Annealing behaviour was studied in deformed copper developed by continuous or discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (cDRX or dDRX). Pure copper was deformed to large strains by multi-directional forging at room temperature, resulting in an ultra-fine grained structure due to operation of cDRX. Subsequent annealing of such a fine-grained copper can be controlled mainly by grain growth accompanied with recovery and no texture change, that is continuous static recrystallization (cSRX). On the other hand, 4 kinds of static restoration processes operate during annealing of dDRXed copper, i.e. metadaynamic recovery and recystallization (mDRV and mDRX), and classical static recovery and recrystallization. The stable existence of mDRVed grains containing moderate dislocations leads to incomplete recrystallization even after a long period of annealing time. It is discussed how such various types of annealing processes, occurring in cDRXed or dDRXed matrices, can be connected with the characteristic nature of the deformed microstructures.
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