Papers by Keyword: Viscosity

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Authors: A.I. Ryzhkov, Victor P. Shantarovich
Authors: Nur Hashimah Alias, Mohd Sabri Zulkifli, Shareena Fairuz Abdul Manaf, Effah Yahya, Nurul Aimi Ghazali, Tengku Amran Tengku Mohd
Abstract: This article is an overview of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and the potential of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae to be applied in MEOR. MEOR may have same mechanisms with commercial enhanced oil recovery (EOR) but it used biological approach in improving oil recovery. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae produced carbon dioxide and ethanol under anaerobic condition. The carbon dioxide and ethanol that produced by this microbe are two from the six main MEOR agents in improving oil recovery. This articles also discussed on previous MEOR pilot projects that were conducted in Argentina, China and Malaysia.
Authors: Shuang Shii Lian, You Yu Lin, Gu Ling Zhang, Mu Rong Lu
Abstract: In order to have good dephosphorization, it is beneficial to know the proper physical properties, including the melting point and viscosity of slag with fixed lime activity for steel refining, slag foaming and reaction in steel making. A fast way to determine the melting point and viscosity of complex multi-component slags is needed to control the quality of steel. In this study, experimental slag of FetO-CaO-SiO2-MgO-MnO-Al2O3 is obtained with electro slag remelting technique. The liquidus temperature of slag is determined with a video-based contact angle meter recorded with a high-speed camera and verified with an isopleth phase diagram of slag constructed with thermodynamic software FACTSAGE. The viscosity of liquid slag can be estimated with the optical basicity and liquidus temperature obtained from the calculated isopleth phase diagram, then it was compared with the experimental value measured by the rotating torque viscometer. The results indicated that substantial error between the calculated temperature of isopleth phase diagram and the value determined with method of contact angle in high basicity slag. On the other hand, minor difference exists between calculated liquidus temperature and measured temperature in low basicity slag. The viscosity estimated from the optical basicity and liquidus temperature of isopleth phase diagram show the similar behavior. It has good correlation between the calculated value and experimental value in low basicity, however, deviations are found in the range of high basicity.
Authors: P.U. Ohirhian, I.N. Abu
Abstract: A new equation for the viscosity of Natural Gas under Reservoir conditions has been developed. The equation was obtained by the analysis of experimental Pressure, Volume and Temperature (PVT) Data of Gas associated with Nigerian Crude Oil. The PVT Data were those of renowned companies that operate in Nigeria. The pressure ranged from 144 psia to 4100 psia, and a temperature variation between 130oF and 220oF. Comparison of the equation formulated in this work with experimental PVT viscosity gave an average absolute error of 1.55%, a maximum absolute error of 4.878% and a standard deviation of 1.29. A comparison of viscosity obtained from the charts of Carr et al and the equation of Lee et al with Nigerian PVT Viscosity showed that the new equation gave more accurate result. Since some Correlations perform better when applied to data from which they were derived, a further comparison test was performed. In this test, the new equation was used to solve two problems for which solutions by the method of Carr et al were available. The first problem from the Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering by Katz et al gave a viscosity of 1.158cp while the new equation gave 1.157cp. The second problem from Ikoku’s book (Natural Gas Production Engineering) gave a viscosity of 1.178cp and the new equation also gave 1.178cp. This closeness of the viscosity of the new equation to the values from the Carr et al method proved the applicability of the new equation to any type of Natural Gas.
Authors: Le Wang, Bin Tang, Yuan Yang Zhao
Abstract: The paper presents a comprehensive friction model of reciprocating compressor which is able to evaluate friction losses in moving parts. The model consists of crankshaft, connecting rod and piston all supported by bearings as well as the piston ring/cylinder interface viewed as sliding friction. Hydrodynamic lubrication theory reveals relationship between load and friction coefficient and was demonstrated to be helpful to give insight to the lubrication characteristics of journal bearing. The model gave the composition of friction losses, friction coefficient dynamic change with orbiting angle and effect of oil viscosity on compressor performance. The results showed that the friction losses of piston ring/cylinder interface and the rod big end bearing was most part of the friction losses and it was necessary to choose suitable oil viscosity to reach the optimum compressor performance.
Authors: Josef Bartoš
Abstract: A phenomenological description of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) response from positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS) and the dynamics from viscosity studies on two typical glass-forming compounds within the framework of the two-order parameter (TOP) model is presented. The dynamical data are accounted for by the modified Vogel – Fulcher – Tamman - Hesse (M-VFTH) equation. Subsequently, the quasi-sigmoidal course of the o-Ps lifetime, τ3, with or without the high-temperature plateau region as a function of the temperature over a wide temperature range can be described by an effective free volume version of the TOP model. This simultaneous description suggests a close relationship between the PALS response and the dynamics of supercooled liquids and seems to support the liquid - like and solid - like domain physical picture of all the three physical states of the disordered phase of the condensed systems.
Authors: Luminita Daniela Ursu, Adriana Diaconu, Bogdan Alexandru Sava, Lucica Boroica, Ileana Mitiu, Elisabeta Rosu, Dorel Radu, M. Dinulescu, Mihai Eftimie
Abstract: The paper presents a study of the industrial waste incorporating in glass in order to obtain decorative colored glasses. The influence of iron and chromium oxides from waste amount is discussed. The samples properties such as density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity are investigated. Including different oxides of heavy metals (obtained from sludge that contains chromium and iron) into the vitreous system leads to the obtaining of several decorative glasses. Their colour varies widely, to the added quantity and the atmosphere of the work place.
Authors: Ehsan Taghizadeh Tousi, Rokiah Hashim, Sabar Bauk, Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar, Amer Mahmoud Al-Jarrah, Hamid Kardani, Ali Mohammad Hamdan Abu Arra, Khalid Saleh Ali Aldroobi
Abstract: In this study, the green animal-based, which has been prepared by prolonged boiling of the inedible connective tissues of domesticated ungulates, was investigated for adhesive properties. The viscosity of green animal-based wood adhesive was measured and compared with that of urea-formaldehyde (UF) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) which are widely used synthetic glues in the wood industry. Also, the crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract (NFE) that represents carbohydrate, and ash as the organic components of green animal-based glue was measured. According to the results, the green animal-based wood glue was found suitable to be used in wood industry.
Authors: Mazlina Mustapha Kamal
Abstract: Much published literature on the way in which phase morphology and filler distribution affect blend properties is contractor or confusing The blending of two or more polymers by physical or chemical means may improve a variety of physical and chemical properties of the constituent polymers. The effect of different modes of filler addition on dispersion and viscosity of Epoxidisd Natural Rubber (ENR) and cis 1,4 –polybutadiene rubber (BR) has been studied. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the relationship and to determine whether the use of special mixing technique and compatabilizers might have a beneficial effect on Epoxidised Natural Rubber: Butadiene Rubber (ENR:BR) blend properties. The findings indicated blending times for combining Silica, BR and ENR was rather difficult even a close viscosity of each rubber was applied. Results indicated a high degree of compatibility with fine structured blends being quickly and easily produced with compound containing compatibilizer than compound with any. Hence, a high viscosity and poor filler dispersion was obtained with all mixing techniques applied except with the one with the coupling agent.
Authors: Lei Jiang, Yong Luo, Wei Hua Wu
Abstract: In this study, commercially available a diesel fuels were blended with the biodiesel produces from two different vegetable oils (sunflower, soybean). The blends (B5, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80) were prepared on a volume. The key fuel properties such as density and viscosities of the blends were measured by following ASTM test methods. Least-squares statistical regression on densities and viscosities data from each of the biodiesel/diesel blend sets revealed highly linear relationships (R2 > 0.99). For all blends, it was found that there is an excellent agreement between the measured and estimated values of the density. The results indicated that accurate prediction of density and viscosities of the blends was most effective when applied to blends prepared from the same fuel-types as the model systems used to develop the predictive equations.
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