Papers by Keyword: X-Ray

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Authors: J.E. Parker, J. Potter, S.P. Thompson, A.R. Lennie, C.C. Tang
Abstract: Beamline I11 at Diamond began accepting users for high resolution powder diffraction experiments in Oct 2008. We present the design, key specifications, performance and the hardware of this new beamline which receives an intense and highly collimated x-ray beam generated by an in-vacuum undulator. With the simple optics (a double-crystal monochromator, harmonic rejection mirrors and slits), a high purity beam of low energy-bandpass X-rays optimised at 15 keV is delivered at the sample. The heavy duty diffraction instrument is designed to have the flexibility to house a variety of sample environments and holds two detection systems to collect high quality diffraction data, i.e. multi-analysing crystals (MAC) for high angular resolution experiments and a fast position sensitive detector (PSD) for time-resolved studies. A recent addition to the beamline capabilities is the installation of a specifically designed gas control system. This allows the in-situ dosing of a powder sample with gases such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide, at low (~10 mbar) and high pressures (<100 bar). In addition a low pressure capillary sample cell is described which is now available to users of the beamline.
Authors: Johannes Will, Alexander Gröschel, Christoph Bergmann, Andreas Magerl
Abstract: The measurement of Pendellösungs oscillations was used to observe the time dependent nucleation of oxygen in a Czochralski grown single crystal at 750°C. It is shown, that the theoretical approach of the statistical dynamical theory describes the data well. Within the framework of this theory it is possible to determine the static Debye-Waller-factor as a function of the annealing time by evaluating the mean value of the Bragg intensity and the period length. The temperature influence on the Pendellösungs distance was corrected for by measurement of a Float-zone sample at the same temperature.
Authors: Hou Kui Fu, De Bo Lu, Zi Guo Li
Abstract: In-situ observation of stress in Al interconnects under electromigration and thermal effect by using the synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction. The test temperature was controlled by changing the current density of W (self-heating structure). The EM-induced stress was also investigated with current densities from 3x105A/cm2 to 4x106A/cm2.The conclusion agreed well with the simulation results.
Authors: C.M. Gourlay, T. Nagira, Kentaro Uesugi, Hideyuki Yasuda
Abstract: Synchrotron radiography experiments are overviewed that directly image semi-solid deformation at the globule-scale. Globular Al-15Cu at 50-60% solid was deformed in direct-shear at 10-2 s-1. Deformation is shown to occur by globule rearrangement without discernible deformation of the individual globules. Globules were found to translate and rotate as quasi-discrete bodies in response to forces acting at globule-globule contacts, similar to liquid-saturated granular materials such as water-saturated sand. Rearrangement caused the globule packing-density (the solid fraction) to adjust by local compaction and local dilation of the globule assembly, and deformation is highly inhomogeneous. During shear, there was a net dilation and strain began to localize into a shear band of decreased solid fraction by the end of the experiments.
Authors: Bing Zhang, Ye Xin Gao, Hao Hao Cui
Abstract: This paper introduces the main measuring methods for sediment concentration of runoff, including the traditional methods, such as ultrasonic method, infrared method, γ-ray method, as well as the newly proposed methods, such as capacitance method , specific heat method. But each of these methods has their limitations. X-ray measuring method for sediment concentration of runoff is good at the measuring accuracy and range, it is sure that X-ray method can open up a new path for measuring sediment concentration of runoff.
Authors: C.A. Koh, J.L. Savidge, C.C. Tang, R.E. Motie, X.P. Wu, R.I. Nooney, R. Westacott
Authors: Yong Jian Mao, Hong Jian Deng, Yu Long Li, Rong Jian He, Hong Wei Xiao, Xiao Hong Yue, Hai Ying Huang, Qing Zhou
Abstract: When a structure is irradiated by a pulsed cold X-ray with high energy density, the instantaneous deposition of energy will induce melting, vaporization, and sublimation of the outer layer of material(s). As a result, the material(s) will blow off and hence lead to a so-called blow-off impulse. This kind of impulsive load will cause high-level structural responses. In order to investigate the effects, various test simulation techniques, such as the light-initiated high explosive (LIHE) technique, the spray lead at target (SPLAT) technique and the sheet-explosive technique, were developed due to the lack of proper X-ray sources. This paper presents a rod-explosive technique developed from the sheet-explosive technique. In this technique, the main property of the explosive, i.e. the specific impulse, is determined by using a pendulum test facility. The simulation load (equivalent to the cosine-distributed specific impulse on a conical shell induced by X-ray) is designed by load discretization and impulse equivalence. Numerical simulations of structural responses to both X-ray loads and rod-explosive loads were performed for validating the test simulation technique. An application example of testing a complex structure is briefly given in the end. The rod-explosive technique has the features of low costs and rather high fidelities. It provides a new approach for testing the structural responses induced by X-ray blow-off impulses.
Authors: Piedraescrita Gallardo, Elisa Abas, Alicia Buceta, Francisco Merchán, Asunción Luquin, Saif A. Haque, Mariano Laguna
Abstract: Lanthanide complexes [Ln (NO3)3(4’-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2’:6’,2’’-terpyridine)]; being Ln all the non radiative lanthanide elements (1 – 14), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, MALDI-MS and the X-ray structures of the La, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy complexes, showing a linear comparison of the average M-O and M-N distances with the ionic radius or the number of f electrons of the lanthanides. The luminescence properties of complexes 4 (Nd), 5 (Sm), 6 (Eu), 8 (Tb), 9 (Dy) in the solid state and in the acetonitrile solutions of 5 (Sm) and 6 (Eu) are reported.
Authors: Hisao Kobayashi, Masanori Satoh, Masahiro Etoh, In Chul Lim, Cheul Muu Sim
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