Papers by Keyword: Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB)

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Authors: P. Hidalgo, C.M. Cepeda-Jiménez, O.A. Ruano, F. Carreño
Abstract: The 7075 Al alloy was processed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) at 300, 350 and 400 °C. The microstructure and texture were characterized and the hardness was measured. Cell/(sub)grain sizes less than 500 nm and typical β-fibre rolling texture were observed in the three ARBed samples. At 400 °C, the presence of elements in solid solution leads to a poorly misoriented microstructure and to a homogeneous β-fibre texture. At 300 and 350 °C highly misoriented microstructure and heterogeneous β-fibre rolling texture are observed, especially at 350 °C, wherein the degree of dynamic recovery is higher. Hardness of the ARBed samples is affected by the amount of atoms in solid solution at the different processing temperatures.
Authors: Margarita Slámová, Petr Homola, P. Sláma, Miroslav Karlík, Miroslav Cieslar, Yoshitatsu Ohara, Nobuhiro Tsuji
Abstract: Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) is a technique of grain refinement by severe plastic deformation, which involves multiple repetitions of surface treatment, stacking, rolling, and cutting. The rolling with 50% reduction in thickness bonds the sheets. After several cycles, ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials are produced. Since ARB enables the production of large amounts of UFG materials, its adoption into industrial practice is favoured. ARB has been successfully used for preparation of UFG sheets from different ingot cast aluminium alloys. Twin-roll casting (TRC) is a cost and energy effective method for manufacturing aluminium sheets. Fine particles and small grain size are intrinsic for TRC sheets making them good starting materials for ARB. The paper presents the results of a research aimed at investigating the feasibility of ARB processing of three TRC alloys, AA8006, AA8011 and AA5754, at ambient temperature. The microstructure and properties of the ARB were investigated by means of light and transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurements. AA8006 specimens were ARB processed without any problems. Sound sheets of AA8011 alloy were also obtained even after 8 cycles of ARB. The AA5754 alloy suffered from severe edge and notch cracking since the first cycle. The work hardening of AA8006 alloy saturated after the 3rd cycle, whereas the hardness of AA5754 alloy increased steadily up to the 5th cycle. Monotonous increase in strength up to 280 MPa was observed in the ARB processed AA8011 alloy.
Authors: Marion Merklein, Wolfgang Böhm
Abstract: The Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) process enables the manufacturing of high strength sheet metals with outstanding mechanical properties by repeated rolling. However, the significant increase in strength leads to loss in ductility, especially regarding aluminum alloys of the 6000 series. The low formability obviously limits the implementation of these sheet products for formed components in automotive applications. To enhance formability, a local short term heat treatment according to the Tailored Heat Treated Blanks technology is used. For the finite element based design of forming operations accurate information about the plastic behavior of these tailored materials is required. Therefore, different stress - strain paths are considered using the tensile test and the layer compression test. In this context, heat treated and non-heat treated specimens out of ARB processed AA6016 were tested at room temperature. With the experimental results true stress strain curves and yield loci determined from different criteria and represented in a principal stress state were established. Regarding the experimental setup of the ARB process, an upscaling is essential for the production of sufficiently large strips to cut out blanks for the forming of components such as B-pillars. However, this requires the adaptation of the different process steps of the ARB process. In this context, the surface treatment before rolling of such large sheets is investigated, since it is particularly relevant for obtaining a strong bonding between the sheets. Another aspect is the investigation of the rolling process using the finite element analysis. In this regard, a thermal mechanical coupled simulation model of the roll bonding operation will be developed for the evaluation of different material combinations, different process temperatures and varying roller geometries. These investigations will enable the production of lightweight automotive components made of ARB processed high strength aluminum sheet metal with tailored properties.
Authors: Miroslav Karlík, Margarita Slámová, Petr Homola, P. Sláma, Miroslav Cieslar
Abstract: Mechanical properties and microstructure of twin-roll cast (TRC) pure aluminium, Al-Fe-Mn-Si (AA8006) and Al-Mg (AA5754) alloy sheets ARB processed at ambient and elevated temperatures (200, 250, 300 and 350°C) were investigated. Processing at elevated temperatures results in better bonding but it produces smaller increases in hardness. AA8006 specimens were processed without any problems up to 7 cycles. The alloy AA5754 suffered from severe edge and notch cracking since the first cycle. The strength was evaluated from tensile test and microhardness measurements; the microstructure was examined using light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure was compared to that of conventionally cold rolled (CCR) specimens with true strain ε of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4 and 3.2 corresponding to the strain induced by 1 to 4 ARB cycles. The work hardening of alloy AA8006 saturated after the 3rd cycle, whereas the hardness of alloy AA5754 increased steadily up to the 5th cycle. Very fine grain structure with large fraction of high angle boundaries was observed in both alloys after two cycles of ARB. The grains were refined to submicrometre and nanometre size (down to 90 nm in alloy AA5754). Intensive post-dynamic recovery was observed in AA8006 specimens. The recovery is less pronounced in the AA5754 alloy with high concentration of solute atoms in solid solution.
Authors: Naoki Takata, Kousuke Yamada, Kenichi Ikeda, Fuyuki Yoshida, Hideharu Nakashima, Nobuhiro Tsuji
Abstract: The recrystallization behavior and texture development in copper accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) processed by various cycles (2, 4 and 6 cycle) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and SEM/EBSP method. The exothermic peaks caused by recrystallization appeared at 210 ~ 253 􀍠 in each sample. The peak positions shifted to lower temperature as the number of ARB cycles increased. This result indicated that the evolution of finer microstructure with increasing number of the ARB cycles enhanced the occurrence of recrystallization at lower temperature. The stored energy calculated from the DSC curve of the ARB processed copper increased with the increasing strains. During an annealing, the preferential growth of cube-oriented grains ({100}<001>) occurred in each sample. The recystallization behavior of ARB processed copper having low stacking fault energies was distinguished from that of so-called “recovery type” materials, i.e. aluminum and low carbon steels, which shows rather continuous changes in microstructure during annealing. The accumulated strains provided the driving force for the preferential growth, which was the same mechanism as the preferential growth in normally rolled copper. The sharpest cube texture developed in ARB processed copper by 4 cycles. The difference of cube texture development between 2 cycles and 4 cycles was caused by the distribution of cube-oriented regions which corresponded to the nucleation sites of recrystallized grains before annealing. More nanocystalline layers in the vicinity of bonded interfaces were distributed in ARB processed copper by 6 cycles than 4cycles. The nanocystalline structure could grow faster than the cube-oriented grains and led to the inhibition of sharp cube texture in the ARB processed copper by 6 cycles.
Authors: Ehsan Borhani, Hamidreza Jafarian, Hiroki Adachi, Daisuke Terada, Nobuhiro Tsuji
Abstract: The effect of prior and subsequent precipitation on recrystallization behavior during the isothermal annealing of an Al-0.2%wt.Sc alloy heavily deformed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) up to 10 cycles at ambient temperature was investigated. Three kind of different microstructures, i.e., solution treated one, 300°C pre-aged one and 400°C pre-aged one, were prepared as the starting structures for the ARB process. It is found that precipitation pinning effect of Al3Sc suppresses recrystallization and especially the 400°C pre-aging was effective to stabilize the ultrafine grained structure of the matrix. Dissolution of pre-aging Al3Sc precipitates was suggested by re-precipitation during annealing of the ARB processed specimens at around 300°C.
Authors: Petr Homola, Margarita Slámová, Vladivoj Očenášek, J. Uhlíř, Miroslav Cieslar
Abstract: Ultra-fine grained (UFG) materials can be produced by several techniques involving severe plastic deformation (SPD). Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) is one of the SPD methods that enable the production of large amounts of UFG sheets. UFG sheets were prepared by up to six cycles of ARB at ambient temperature from an Al-0.22Sc-0.13Zr alloy in two states: a non-agehardened and a peak-aged. The effect of Al3(Sc1-xZrx) precipitates on the thermal stability of the UFG structures produced by ARB was investigated by isochronal annealing at temperatures between 200 and 550 °C. Additionally, the non-age-hardened ARB material was peak-aged prior to annealing and annealed together with both as-ARB-processed materials. The changes of microstructure and hardness due to annealing were studied. Annealing at 300 °C induces an additional strengthening in both non-pre-aged ARB materials that may be ascribed to precipitation and growth of coherent Al3(Sc1-xZrx) particles. This result suggests that the hardness decrease introduced by ARB in the peak-aged specimen is due to dissolution of precipitates during deformation. The annealing response of the materials above 300 °C does not depend on their thermal pre-treatment. However, the finely dispersed Al3(Sc1-xZrx) precipitates stabilise the refined deformed microstructure suitable for superplastic forming up to relatively high temperatures.
Authors: Shinya Kamimura, Koichi Kitazono, Eiichi Sato, Kazuhiko Kuribayashi
Abstract: A new application of superplasticity was proposed in the manufacturing process of metal foams. Preform sheets were manufactured using superplastic 5083 aluminum alloy sheets through accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process. Microcellular aluminum foam plates with 50% porosity were produced through solid-state foaming under the superplastic condition. The cell shape was oblate spheroid, which is effective to reduce the thermal conductivity. The present aluminum foam plates have a potential as an excellent heat insulator.
Authors: Ling Jiang, Maria Teresa Pérez-Prado, Oscar A. Ruano, M.E. Kassner
Abstract: The bond strength of ultrafine grained Zr with a grain size of 0.4 µm, fabricated by accumulative roll bonding (ARB), was assessed. The shear strength of the bond was estimated to be about 20% of the shear fracture strength of the as processed metal, a ratio significantly higher than that found in other materials processed by similar methods. The favorable degree of bonding achieved is attributed to the high ductility of Zr as well as to the high reductions used during the ARB process.
Authors: Takuro Nakamura, Hiromoto Kitahara, Jung Goo Lee, Nobuhiro Tsuji
Abstract: Pure Al (99%) and pure Fe (99.5%) sheets were mutually stacked and severely deformed up to equivalent strain of 16 by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process in an attempt to achieve bulk mechanical alloying. The deformation was carried out at RT. The Al/Fe sheets ARB processed by 1 cycle showed a number of shear bands penetrating the stacked layers. The Fe layers, which were harder than the Al layers, were subdivided by the shear bands into diamond-shaped regions. Dissolution of Fe into Al was observed and a supersaturated solid solution was formed in the specimen ARB processed by 10 cycles. It was also found that local amorphization occurred at interface regions via formation of Al5Fe2 intermetallic compound.
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