Papers by Keyword: Activation Volume

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Authors: Jie Zhao, Tie Shan Cao, Cong Qian Cheng, Hui Fang Li
Abstract: The current paper investigates on the creep behavior of 12Cr-Mo-W-0.25V heat resistant steel base on the long-term stress relaxation test data. It is shows that the stress relaxation curve can be divided into 2 stages: the high stress stage has higher apparent activation volume of 79~350 b3 and the low stress stage is 35~78 b3. Besides, the Helmholtz free energy at the high stress stage is 827~1034 kJ/mol which is higher than 210~252 kJ/mol of the low stress stage. Taking both apparent activation volume and activation energy into account, it is assumed that the high stress stage is mainly controlled by dislocation slip and the low stress stage is more related to diffusion.
Authors: S.K. Wonnell, J.M. Delaye, Yves Limoge, M. Bibolé
Authors: Irina Valikova, Andrei V. Nazarov, Alexandr A. Mikheev
Abstract: This work is devoted to the simulation of atom configurations in bcc metals near the point defect using the molecular static method. The values of migration and formation volumes are very sensitive to the atomic structure in the vicinity of a defect, which makes it necessary to consider a large number of atoms in the computation cell and to take into account an elastic matrix around the cell. We have developed the new model taking into consideration these factors. It allows defining the “fine structure” of displacement atoms near the point defect. The atoms of third zone were embedded in an elastic continuum. The displacement of each atom embedded in an elastic continuum was defined as the first and the second terms in solution of elastic equation. In the framework of this model we calculated the formation and migration energies and volumes of defect. Also we take into consideration that the energy of system (in particular the system with defect) depends on the external pressure. This dependence gives an addition to the values of migration and formation volumes.
Authors: Boris S. Bokstein, Alexander Epishin, Vladimir Esin, Mikhail Mendelev, Alexey Rodin, Sergei Zhevnenko
Abstract: Three cross diffusion-stresses effects are considered: mobility-stress effect, flux-stress effect and vacancy-stress effect. The value of the migration volume for vacancies in Al is found from atomistic computer simulation. A cross vacancy-stress effect is applied to the process of the pores growth and dissolution in Ni-based superalloys.
Authors: Zuzanka Trojanová, Pavel Lukáč, Zoltán Száraz
Abstract: The deformation behaviour of the ternary magnesium alloy AX41 (4%Al-1%Ca-balance Mg) were investigated in uniaxial tension tests at temperatures between 20 and 300 °C and at an initial strain rate ranging in the order 10-4 s-1. The yield stress of the alloy is very sensitive to the testing temperature. Stress relaxation tests were performed with the aim to reveal physical base of deformation processes.
Authors: Helmut Mehrer
Abstract: In this Chapter we review knowledge about diffusion and cation conduction in oxide glasses. We first remind the reader in Section 1 of major aspects of the glassy state and recall in Section 2 the more common glass families. The diffusive motion in ion-conducting oxide glasses can be studied by several techniques – measurements of radiotracer diffusion, studies of the ionic conductivity by impedance spectroscopy, viscosity studies and pressure dependent studies of tracer diffusion and ion conduction. These methods are briefly reviewed in Section 3. Radiotracer diffusion is element-specific, whereas ionic conduction is not. A comparison of both types of experiments can throw considerable light on the question which type of ions are carriers of ionic conduction. For ionic conductors Haven ratios can be obtained from the tracer diffusivity and the ionic conductivity for those ions which dominate the conductivity.In the following sections we review the diffusive motion of cations in soda-lime silicate glass and in several alkali-oxide glasses based mainly on results from our laboratory published in detail elsewhere, but we also take into account literature data.Section 4 is devoted to two soda-lime silicate glasses, materials which are commonly used for window glass and glass containers. A comparison between ionic conductivity and tracer diffusion of Na and Ca isotopes, using the Nernst-Einstein relation to deduce charge diffusivities, reveals that sodium ions are the carriers of ionic conduction in soda-lime glasses. A comparison with viscosity data on the basis of the Stokes-Einstein relation shows that the SiO2 network is many orders of magnitude less mobile than the relatively fast diffusing modifier cations Na. The Ca ions are less mobile than the Na ions but nevertheless Ca is considerably more mobile than the network.Section 5 summarizes results of ion conduction and tracer diffusion for single Na and single Rb borate glasses. Tracer diffusion and ionic conduction have been studied in single alkali-borate glasses as functions of temperature and pressure. The smaller ion is the faster diffusing species in its own glass. This is a common feature of all alkali oxide glasses. The Haven ratio of Na in Na borate glass is temperature independent whereas the Haven ratio of Rb diffusion in Rb borate glass decreases with decreasing temperature.Section 6 reviews major facts of alkali-oxide glasses with two different alkali ions. Such glasses reveal the so-called mixed-alkali effect. Its major feature is a deep minimum of the conductivity near some middle composition for the ratio of the two alkali ions. Tracer diffusion shows a crossover of the two tracer diffusivities as functions of the relative alkali content near the conductivity minimum. The values of the tracer diffusivities also reveal in which composition range which ions dominate ionic conduction. Tracer diffusion is faster for those alkali ions which dominate the composition of the mixed glass.Section 7 considers the pressure dependence of tracer diffusion and ionic conduction. Activation volumes of tracer diffusion and of charge diffusion are reviewed. By comparison of tracer and charge diffusion the so-called Haven ratios are obtained as functions of temperature, pressure and composition. The Haven ratio of Rb in Rb borate glass decreases with temperature and pressure whereas that of Na in Na borate glass is almost constant.Section 8 summarizes additional common features of alkali-oxide glasses. Activation enthalpies of charge diffusion decrease with decreasing average ion-ion distance. The Haven ratio is unity for large ion-ion distances and decreases with increasing alkali content and hence with decreasing ion-ion distance.Conclusions about the mechanism of diffusion are discussed in Section 9. The Haven ratio near unity at low alkali concentrations can be attributed to interstitial-like diffusion similar to interstitial diffusion in crystals. At higher alkali contents collective, chain-like motions of several ions prevail and lead to a decrease of the Haven ratio. The tracer diffusivities have a pressure dependence which is stronger than that of ionic conductivity. This entails a pressure-dependent Haven ratio, which can be attributed to an increasing degree of collectivity of the ionic jump process with increasing pressure. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the number of ions which participate in collective jump events increases with increasing ion content – i.e. with decreasing average ion-ion distance. For the highest alkali contents up to four ions can be involved in collective motion. Common aspects of the motion process of ions in glasses and of atoms in glassy metals are pointed out. Diffusion in glassy metals also occurs by collective motion of several atoms.Section 10 summarizes the major features of ionic conduction and tracer diffusion and its temperature and pressure dependence of oxide glasses.
Authors: Helmut Mehrer
Abstract: Elemental semiconductors play an important role in high-technology equipment used in industry and everyday life. The first transistors were made in the 1950ies of germanium. Later silicon took over because its electronic band-gap is larger. Nowadays, germanium is the base material mainly for γ-radiation detectors. Silicon is the most important semiconductor for the fabrication of solid-state electronic devices (memory chips, processors chips, ...) in computers, cellphones, smartphones. Silicon is also important for photovoltaic devices of energy production.Diffusion is a key process in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. This chapter deals with diffusion and point defects in silicon and germanium. It aims at making the reader familiar with the present understanding rather than painstakingly presenting all diffusion data available a good deal of which may be found in a data collection by Stolwijk and Bracht [1], in the author’s textbook [2], and in recent review papers by Bracht [3, 4]. We mainly review self-diffusion, diffusion of doping elements, oxygen diffusion, and diffusion modes of hybrid foreign elements in elemental semiconductors.Self-diffusion in elemental semiconductors is a very slow process compared to metals. One of the reasons is that the equilibrium concentrations of vacancies and self-interstitials are low. In contrast to metals, point defects in semiconductors exist in neutral and in charged states. The concentrations of charged point defects are therefore affected by doping [2 - 4].
Authors: Helmut Mehrer
Abstract: Firstly, this paper reminds the reader of some basic facts about the glassy state, then of the various ways to produce amorphous metals with particular emphasis on the route of vitrification from the melt. Vitrification of an undercooled melt is the most important route from the viewpoint of the application of metallic glasses. We compare diffusion in some metallic glasses with related crystalline metals. Glassy metals, also called metallic glasses, comprise conventional [1] and bulk metallic glasses [2,3]. We remind the reader of the major experimental techniques for diffusion studies in metallic glasses. The paper then reviews our current understanding of diffusion in glassy metals (see also [4,5,6]), including conventional as well as bulk metallic glasses and undercooled melts. We cover the temperature dependence of diffusion in metallic glasses and discuss the spectrum of activation parameters of glassy metals and its difference to the corresponding one of crystalline metals. We mention the pressure dependence and the isotope effect and we discuss tracer diffusion and viscosity diffusion for a bulk metallic glass and its undercooled melt. Finally we mention computer simulations of atomic jump processes. The diffusion mechanism in metallic glasses differs from that in crystalline metals and involves thermally activated, highly collective (chain-like or caterpillar-like) diffusion jumps. Finally, we mention diffusion along shearbands in a plastically deformed glassy metal.
Authors: Helmut Mehrer
Abstract: In this Chapter, we review knowledge about diffusion in quasi-crystalline alloys (quasicrystals). In Section 1 we first remind the reader of some major aspects of the quasi-crystalline state and in Section 2 we introduce phase diagrams with quasi-crystalline phases, for which detailed diffusion studies are available. We mention in Section 3 the more common experimental methods for diffusion studies. The diffusive motion of atoms in quasi-crystalline alloys can be studied by the same techniques used for crystalline metallic alloys and intermetallics – measurements of radiotracer diffusion and diffusion of stable isotopes and solute atoms by SIMS profiling. The best-studied quasi-crystalline alloys are icosahedral AlPdMn, icosahedral ZnMgRE (RE = rare earth metal), and decagonal AlNiCo. The major diffusion results for these quasicrystals are reviewed in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 7 is devoted to the pressure dependence of diffusion in quasicrystals and to a comparison of the activation volumes with those of crystalline metals. Positron annihilation studies are also mentioned, which together with activation volumes for diffusion strongly favour a vacancy mechanism in quasicrystals. The major results and conclusions are summarized in Section 8.
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