Papers by Keyword: AMD

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Authors: Young Moon Kim, Ki Pyo You, Jang Youl You
Abstract: Most of modern tall buildings using lighter construction materials are more flexible so could be excessive wind-induced vibrations resulting in occupant discomfort and structural unsafety. The optimal control technique for reducing along-wind vibration of a tall building based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is presented in this work. Actively controlled reduced along-wind vibration response is obtained from the tall building installed in an active mass damper (AMD) with a LQR controller. Fluctuating along-wind load is generated using numerical simulation method, which can formulate a stationary Gaussian white noise process. Simulating wind load in the time domain using known spectra data of fluctuating along-wind load is particularly useful for estimation of windinduced vibration which is more or less narrow banded process such as a along-wind response of a tall building. In this work, fluctuating along-wind load acting on a tall building treated as a stationary Gaussian white noise process is simulated numerically using the along-wind load spectra proposed by G. Solari in1992. And using this simulated along-wind load estimated the reduced along-wind vibration response of a tall building installed in an AMD with a LQR controller.
1063
Authors: Axel Schippers, Dagmar Kock
Abstract: The geomicrobiology of sulfidic mine dumps is reviewed. More than 30 microbiological studies of sulfidic mine dumps have been published. Mainly culturing approaches such as most probable number (MPN) or agar plates were used to study the microbial communities. More recently, molecular biological techniques such as FISH, CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, T-RFLP, DGGE, or cloning have been applied to quantify microorganisms and to investigate the microbial diversity. Aerobic Fe(II)- and sulfur compound oxidizing microorganisms oxidize pyrite, pyrrhotite and other metal sulfides and play an important role in the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD). Anaerobic microorganisms such as Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms dissolve Fe(III)(hydr)oxides and may thereby release adsorbed or precipitated metals. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms precipitate and immobilize metals. In addition to the microbial communities several biogeochemical processes have been analyzed in mine dumps. Pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation rates have been measured by different techniques: Column experiments, humidity cells, microcalorimetry, or oxygen consumption measurements. Analyses of stable isotopes of iron, oxygen and sulfur have yielded valuable information on biogeochemical reactions. The microbiology and the biogeochemical processes in sulfidic mine dumps have to be understood for control and prevention of AMD generation and to provide different possibilities for remediation concepts. Today, remediation measures, e.g. under water storage of the waste or covering of the dumps, focus on the inhibition of pyrite oxidation to keep the toxic compounds inside the mine waste dumps. As an alternative to the inhibition of pyrite oxidation, metals which also have economic value could be extracted from mine dumps by the application of different metal extraction technologies including bioleaching.
37
Authors: Robert Klein, Michael Schlömann, Yun Zeng, Bernd Wacker, Franz Glombitza, Eberhard Janneck, Martin Mühling
Abstract: Treatment of acidic Fe (II)- and sulfate-rich mine waters represents a major problem in many areas of the world. Therefore, a process was developed which utilises naturally occurring sulfate-reducing microorganisms for the elimination of sulfate and of part of the acidity from the acidic mine water. In order to improve the performance of this biological sulfate reduction process an in-depth analysis of the microbial diversity and activity in dependence of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and other process parameters used to run the bioreactors was undertaken. This comparison demonstrated a positive correlation between shorter HRT and increasing sulfate reduction rates. The improvement in performance with decreasing HRT was paralleled by an increase of the total enzymatic activity (measured as hydrolase activity) of the microbial community and of the biomass (measured as protein concentration) in the bioreactors. A partial taxonomic identification of the microbial community in the bioreactors was achieved via nucleotide sequence analysis of a clone library of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments prepared from a sample of the microbial biofilm in the bioreactor. Additionally, the genetic fingerprint technique T-RFLP was used to assess temporal changes of the microbial community in the biofilm within the reactor.
392
Authors: Young Moon Kim, Ki Pyo You, Jang Youl You
Abstract: Modern tall buildings are more flexible so occur excessive wind-induced vibration resulting in occupant discomfort and structural safety. Many studies to reduce such a wind-induced vibration using a feedback controller and auxiliary devices have been conducted .The optimal control law of linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller is used for reducing the across-wind vibration response of a tall building with an active mass damper (AMD). Fluctuating across-wind load treated as a Gaussian white noise process is simulated numerically in time domain. And using this simulated across-wind load estimated across-wind vibration responses of tall building with AMD using LQG controller.
1602
Authors: Mei Qin Chen, Feng Ji Wu
Abstract: Acid mine drainage (AMD) has properties of extreme acidification, quantities of sulfate and elevated levels of soluble heavy metals. It was a widespread environmental problem that caused adverse effects to the qualities of ground water and surface water. In the past decades, most of investigations were focused on the heavy metals as their toxicities for human and animals. As another main constitution of AMD, sulfate ion is nontoxic, yet high concentration of sulfate ion can cause many problems such as soil acidification, metal corrosion and health problems. More attention should be paid on the sulfate ion when people focus on the AMD. In the paper, sulfate removal mechanisms include adsorption, precipitation, co-precipitation and biological reduction were analyzed and summarized. Meanwhile, the remediation technologies, especially the applications of them in China were also presented and discussed.
3252
Authors: Bo Wei Chen, Jian Kang Wen, Xing Yu Liu
Abstract: An integrated sulfate reducing process was used to treat Acid Mine Drainage with high concentrations of Cu2+, Fe and SO42-. The water treatment system integrated a sulfidogenic UASB bioreactor with a precipitation reactor which was used to recover copper. Sodium lactate was used as energy source. The effective volume of the UASB reactor was 2 L and the hydraulic retention time was 12.57h. In the sulphate removal reactor, sulphate was removed from 21160 to 195 mg/L with a rate of 4427.8 mg/L/d. Cu2+ and Fe was removed by biologically generated S2- and OH- from 360 and 6520 to 0.049 mg/L and less than 10 mg/L respectively. The average COD, copper and iron removal rate was 2523.2, 15.21 and 274.98 mg/L/d separately. The effluent pH reached 6.0-7.0. The results showed potential usage of this bioreactor in treating Acid Mine Drainage.
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