Papers by Keyword: Ammonium Perchlorate

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Authors: Amir Aziz, Wan Khairuddin bin Wan Ali
Abstract: There were very limited number of references published discussing the burning characteristic of aluminized propellant without any additive substance. This paper describes the performance characteristics of basic formulations of aluminized ammonium perchlorate based propellant. Four sets of propellant formulations namely by p60, p66, p74 and p80 had been formulated and manually prepared without adding any additives. The propellant consists of ammonium perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, aluminum (Al) as fuel and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel/binder. For each mixture, HTPB binder composition was fixed at 15% per-weight. By varying AP and Al, the effect of oxidizer-fuel (O/F) ratio on the whole propellant can be determined. The propellant strands were manufactured using press-molding method and burnt in a strand burner over a range of chamber pressure from 6 atm to 31 atm. Based on theoretical evaluation using NASA CEC71 program, p66 has been selected for testing in ballistic evaluation motor (BEM) to ascertain its characteristics performance. The results from burning rate test shows that the increasing of O/F ratio and combustion pressure lead to the increase in burning rate. The highest burning rate achieved was 12mm/sec at combustion pressure of 31atm for propellant p80 which has O/F ratio of 4.0. While for the BEM, the propellant efficiency obtained for p66 was 95.44%.
Authors: W. M. Abdel-Wareth, Xu Xu
Abstract: Effects of various grain sizes (10~390 µm) under heating rate of 40 °C/min on ammonium perchlorate (AP) decomposition characteristic parameters, the decomposition thermal behavior and kinetic parameters (activation energy and pre-exponential factor), were investigated by simultaneous DSC/TGA in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere. In addition, the specific surface areas were measured by the BET-method. Moreover, the kinetic parameters were determined by a simplified approach based on the isoconversional method. The results showed that, the higher the AP particle size the lower the determined decomposition kinetic parameters. In addition, the results were in acceptable agreements with some important literatures. Moreover, it was highly recommended to apply the higher agreeable heating rates for AP samples to determine that parameters more accurately.
Authors: Hong Bo Liu, Bing Zhi Guo, Zhi Yong Huang, Hong Hui Xu, Chu Yang Fang, Qing Ze Jiao
Abstract: A series of Cu/Cr nanocomposite oxides (Cu/Cr–NCOs) were prepared by Cu/Cr hydrotalcite precursors. Their catalytic activities on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results show that Cu/Cr–NCOs are efficient in enhancing thermal decomposition of AP. With 4 wt. % addition of 500 °C calcined Cu2Cr–NCOs, the thermal decomposition process of AP can be accelerated by 107 °C. Cu/Cr–NCOs catalysts have better effect compared to mechanical mixture of CuO and Cr2O3 catalyst. Their catalytic mechanism was also discussed.
Authors: Mohammad Hafizi, Rizalman Mamat, Amir Aziz, M.M. Noor, Ahmad Tamimi
Abstract: One of the key factors that play an important role in the performance of a solid propellant rocket is dependent on its burning rate. A strand burner is a type of apparatus used to measure the propellant burning rate at elevated pressure. This study investigates the relation between burning rates of aluminized ammonium perchlorate at low pressure. Chamber pressure was varied from 1 atm, 3 atm, 5 atm and 7 atm. This study shows that propellant burning rate is about 50%-62% higher when the burn rate test is conducted at atmospheric condition compared to when it is done in inert gas. The investigation’s results also revealed an increasing propellant burning rate when the chamber pressure is increased. In conclusion, the burning condition and chamber pressure influences the propellant burning rate.
Authors: Amir Aziz, Wan Khairuddin bin Wan Ali
Abstract: In this paper, experimental investigation of pressure exponent in burning rate of composite propellant was conducted. Four sets of different propellant compositions had been prepared with the combination of Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, Aluminum (Al) as fuel and Hydroxy-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel and binder. For each mixture, HTPB binder was fixed at 15% and cured with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). By varying AP and Al, the effect of oxidizer-fuel mixture ratio (O/F) on the whole propellant can be determined. The propellant strands were manufactured using compression molded method and burnt in a strand burner using wire technique over a range of pressure from 1atm to 31atm. The results obtained shows that the pressure exponent n, increases with increasing O/F. The highest pressure exponent achieved was 0.561 for propellant p80 which has O/F ratio of 80/20.
Authors: Feng Juan Xiao, Yun Jun Luo
Abstract: Structures of ferrocene containing hyperbranched polyester (HBPE-Fc) was characterized by FTIR and H1 NMR. The spectroscopic analysis provided evidence of the successful modification of ferrocene toHBPE. The catalytic performances for thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) were investigated by DSC techniques. The kinetic parameters were computed by the Kissinger method. The results indicated that the presence of HBPE-Fc reduces the maximum decomposition reaction temperature in AP samples. HBPE-Fc presented an efficient catalytic effect on the thermal degradation of AP and the catalytic reactions were characterized by decreased activation energy and increased rate constant of thermal decomposition. The possible catalytic mechanism was proposed.
Authors: J.K. Sharma, Pratibha Srivastava, Gurdip Singh, Hardev Singh Virk
Abstract: Recent applications of transition metal nanoferrites as catalyst in thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and combustion of composite solid propellant (CSP), have been reviewed. Catalytic applications include the use of mainly cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, manganese, cadmium nanoferrites, as well as their mixed-metal combinations. The nanoferrites are obtained mainly by wet-chemical, sol-gel, solvo-thermal, auto-combustion and co-precipitation methods. Addition of nanoferrites to AP led to shifting of the high temperature decomposition peak toward lower temperatures which shows their catalytic activity. The burning rates of CSPs have also been enhanced by these nanoferrites. Contents of Paper
Authors: Lei Li Liu, Jing Jing Xin, Feng Ma
Abstract: Mg2NiH4 was prepared by replacement-diffusion method, and its structure was determined by XRD、ICP and DSC-TG. The influence of Mg2NiH4 on the thermal decomposition behaviour for ammonium perchlorate (AP) was carried out by thermal analysis (DSC). Results show that Mg2NiH4 has obvious catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of AP. This catalytic effect of Mg2NiH4 was enhanced with its increase in content, and the DSC heat release for AP was on its biggest value when the content of Mg2NiH4 was 30%. With the increase of hydrogen storage, the catalytic effect of Mg-Ni hydrogen storage alloys became stronger.
Authors: Hong Bo Liu, Zhi Yong Huang, Bing Zhi Guo, Qing Ze Jiao
Abstract: Ni/Co/Cu/Fe nano-composite oxides (Ni/Co/Cu/Fe–NCOs) were prepared by calcination of Ni/Co/Cu/Fe hydrotalcites (Ni/Co/Cu/Fe–HTs) precursors. Ni/Co/Cu/Fe–NCOs were used as new catalysts on improving thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). Their catalytic activities were investigated using DTA and TG–MS. The results revealed that Ni/Co/Cu/Fe–NCOs exhibited NiO and spinel phase with high specific surface areas of 90–120 m2 g–1. They have homogenous particles with average crystallite size in the range of 50–60 nm. The thermal decomposition process of AP can be accelerated by the addition of Ni/Co/Cu/Fe–NCOs. Ni/Co/Cu/Fe–NCOs achieved the purpose of improving thermal decomposition of AP based on the presence of superoxide ion (O2) on the surface of Ni/Co/Cu/Fe–NCOs.
Authors: Amir Mukhtar, Habib Nasir, Hizba Waheed
Abstract: The Closed vessel (CV) is an equipment used to study the ballistic parameters by recording burning time history, pressure buildup during the process and vivacity of the propellants. It is an apparatus which consists of strong pressure vessel, piezo-electric pressure transducers, sensors and dedicated software. To save time and resources this method is employed instead of dynamic firing while doing research and development of propellants. A measured amount of propellant charge is loaded in the vessel and fired remotely. Ignition is provided by the filament which ignites the black powder charge. In this study, we have used Closed Vessel Tests (CVT) for the first time for recording the ballistic parameters of slow burning composite rocket propellant. We developed a set of composite solid propellant samples containing a mixture of bimodal Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, Hydroxy-terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) as a binder as well as fuel, Dioctyl Sebacate (DOS) as plasticizer, 1-(2-methyl) Aziridinyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) as bonding agent and Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) as curator. Samples were developed by changing the solid loading percentage of bimodal AP particles. By increasing the percentage of AP, the oxidizer-fuel ratio (O/F) increases which effects the ballistic parameters. It is observed that maximum pressure and vivacity increases with increase in solid filler in the propellants. As quantity of AP increases, rate of rise of pressure also increases. CVT firing of each sample was done three times to obtain average burning time and pressure buildup history to evaluate the effect of oxidizer loadings on ballistic parameters of the composite propellant.
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