Papers by Keyword: Archaeometry

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Authors: A.Emel Geçkinli, A. Aydin Göktaş, A. Süer, F. Yenişehirlioğlu
Authors: Béla Török, Árpád Kovács
Abstract: In the last few years iron slag finds from the Late Avar Period (7-9th cent.), the Period of Hungarian conquest (10th cent.) and the Árpáds (11-13th cent.) uncovered in sites of excavation in the Carpathian Basin had been examined. The pieces of slags are by-products of the metallurgical process of bloomery and forming procedure of iron blooms. The structure of the examined slags was very heterogeneous from the metallographic point of view. The amorphous phase as well as panelled and dendritic crystallization can be found, which was the more frequent. Secondary, nay, tertiary branch of dendrite often can be studied, which was the result of gradual cooling. It was typical for its microstructure that minerals formed from oxides of elements with lower atomic number than iron (Al, Mg, Ca, etc.) surround the fayalite-rich parts. These minerals sometimes also have a high quantity of Fe, sometimes those have a very low Fe-content. The examination of microstructure can help to determine the type of the slag, whether it comes from metallurgical (as a tap-slag or cinder) or forming process, and to specify and reconstruct the metallurgical and physicochemical processes in the medieval bloomery.
Authors: Javier R. Santisteban, S. Siano, Mark R. Daymond
Abstract: We report neutron strain scanning experiments on archaeological bronzes, with the aim of identifying the original manufacturing techniques used. The specimens studied were a Picenan necklace from VI BC, and an Etruscan bucket handle from IV BC, exhibited at the Marches Museum of Archaeology, Ancona, Italy. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction and transmission experiments were performed at the ENGIN-X instrument, ISIS, UK. For the necklace, characteristic bending strain profiles and a small degree of preferred orientation indicate that the specimen had been cold worked. For the handle, broad diffraction peaks and highly distorted Bragg edges -typical of a columnar grain microstructure- suggested that this specimen was cast and did not undergo significant thermal or mechanical treatment. The relation between the experimental diffracted and transmitted time-of-flight spectra, and the microstructure of specimens are discussed.
Authors: Francesco Grazzi, Laura Bartoli, Francesco Civita, Anna Maria Paradowska, Antonella Scherillo, Marco Zoppi
Abstract: Two Japanese long swords (katanas) belonging to the Koto Age (X-XVI century A.D.) were measured through time of flight neutron diffraction to analyze the phases, and the stress and strain distribution, in selected parts of the blades. The swords are representative of two different forging schools (Aoe and Kanesada) and one of the main aims of the measurements was to evidence possible similarities and differences. Two independent experiments were carried out at the ISIS pulsed neutron source using the INES and ENGIN-X diffractometers. The former was employed to map the average phase distribution on two selected cross sections, of each blade, distinguishing among the ridge, the core, and the edge of the blades. In this way, we were able to quantify the coarse distribution of the carbon content and, moreover, we could evidence the presence of martensite. These data were then complemented measuring detailed stress and strain distribution maps on ENGIN-X. As far as the ridge and the core are concerned, the tang data were taken as a reference. These measurements significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of the technology used to produce Japanese swords belonging to the Koto Age.
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