Papers by Keyword: Biomass

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Authors: Tao Wu, Dong Zhi Zhao, Guo Jun Jiang, Wei Xu, Cui Xiao
Abstract: Suaeda salsa is the characteristics vegetation in the wetlands of Northern China. By acquiring Suaeda Salsa biomass, building spectral reflectance curve, probing into the relationship between the vegetation indices and the biomass, and finally achieving Suaeda Salsa’s biomass remote sensing monitor in the ShuangTai river estuary, Conclusions are as follows: 1). Correlation coefficient between the biomass and the vegetation indices (RVI and NDVI) is low, and Linear regression equation (R2) is 0.342 and 0.316, and the Logarithmic regression equation (R2) is 0.319 and 0.21, and the Quadratic equation (R2) is 0.589 and 0.568. Correlation coefficient between the biomass and the vegetation indices (PVI, SAVI and MSAVI) is high, and the linear regression equation is 0.626、0.698 and 0.679, respectively. The logarithmic regression equation is 0.592、0.706 and 0.683 respectively and the quadratic equation is 0.688、0.711 and 0.683. 2). Suaeda salsa’s biomass is consistent with the distribution area in the Shuangtai river estuary. Total biomass maintained at 2.9 × 107- 4.2 × 108kg in 1990, and dropped to 3.4 × 106 ~ 3.5 × 107kg in 1995. In 2000, the quadratic function of vegetation version biomass rebounded, but linear function continues to fall. Biomass increased rapidly, reaching 1.46 ~ 2.4 × 108kg in 2005.
Authors: Fei Shi, Bao Min Sun
Abstract: Two renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources, biomass and solar sources, are compounded. It is an integrated thermal power system that avoids their respective shortages based on the principle of cascade utilization of energy according to energy level. The PPSD, a computer aided design tool, models and simulates the whole system and provides important parameters for designers. The calculation results present that the biomass fuel consumption saving is about 35,904 tons if the hybrid solar thermal power system works 2200 hours in a year for the 48tph biomass boiler. The dropping of flue gas emission temperature to 123°Cincreases the boiler efficiency to 91.45%.
Authors: Ali Arasteh Nodeh
Abstract: The effect of process condition (acid concentration, solid content, temperature, and time) on fermentable sugar production by concentrated acid hydrolysis for green walnut skin pretreatment was studied. Dried WGS with solid to liquid ratio of 5%, 10%, 15% was treated with 20, 40, 60 wt% sulfuric acid at 65, 80,90°C for 2, 3, 4 hours and final solutions were analyzed by HPLC. The process was modeled by three models: first order reaction kinetics, using severity factor and a second order equation. The work indicates that the use of Walnut green skin may be a feasible option as a feed material for the production of glucose for biofuel synthesis.
Authors: Francesco Saverio Nesci, Nicoletta Maria Iellamo
Abstract: Farming and agro-industrial waste can represent a resource when destined to energy production and they can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emission, to improve energetic efficiency and increase renewable energies. 6 stations are already working in Calabria for agro-zootechnical biomasses and agro-industrial waste transformation, in compliance with 91/676/CEE, Nitrates Directive, then D.L. 152/99 and D.M. 7 April 2006, redefined by D.M. 6-7-2012 It reduced incentives, with the aim of implementing small sized stations powered by recyclable byproducts, which are easier to manage especially in the form of consortium by medium and small sized companies that would otherwise be excluded from the market. An appropriate use of pruning waste would also mean turning a problem into an opportunity if, instead of burning it and producing high levels of CO2 (as forbidden by D.L. “terra dei fuochi”) it could be destined to produce a new kind of power source, biochar, with a carbon negative function. Concerning the market of carbon credits derivable from pruning waste and from the production of more than 130.000 t of biochar (which, differently from the forestry sector, hasn’t been accepted in farming yet), the potential wealth on the regional territory could vary from 5 to 11 million € according to the set price. Establishing a more competitive and sustainable source of energy is one of the most important challenges that our Country has to face today. This sector plays a key role in the economic development of the Country, not only as a distinctive feature of low cost energy production, limited impact on environment and high utilization, but also as an element of growth per se, with a boost in ecologic economy thanks to a predominant use of renewable resources, recycling and curbing domestic or industrial waste, according to Green Economy parameters.
Authors: Hua Xiao Yan, Hui Zhao, Qi Liu, Yan Xiang Ai, Yan Zhang, Chang Long Wang, Shi Xue Zhou, Zuo Zhen Han
Abstract: The Suaeda salsa L. has been discovered to be a great potential as a new kind of renewable energy. The pyrolytic characteristics and kinetics of S. salsa were investigated at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30°C/min under nitrogen atmosphere respectively. The most probable mechanism function was deduced using Popescu method, which is a three-dimensional diffusion function (), and n=-2/3. Activation energy and pre-exponential factors were studied through the FWO, KAS and Popescu methods. The results showed that the activation energy increase as the pyrolysis process and three stages were observed in the TG-DTG curves of S.salsa. The results showed that S.salsa as a pyrolysis feedstock has a great potential and a good prospect in bio-oil production.
Authors: A.A. Fernandes, E.U.C. Frajndlich, Humberto Gracher Riella
Abstract: The high pure synthetic zeolite have a large application in industry and agriculture, being nowadays in majority imported in Brazil. The biomass like rice hull ash (RHA), a rice industry waste, can be real advantageous in manufacture of different materials, since that is produced in large scale in the country. The silica extraction from RHA by alkaline leaching is a low energetic coast process and high efficiency, obtaining high pure silica with high reactive amorphous structure, very interesting for zeolite production. In this work was developed a economically feasible route for the production of high purity and crystallinity ZSM-5 zeolite, free of expensive template, starting from a low value intake, a industrial waste, producing a high value materials. The extracted silica from RHA in sodium silicate form is precipitated in the proper zeolite formation reactional mixture. The ZSM-5 have a lot of industrial applications due your high selectivity in catalytic reactions and high thermal and acid stability.
Authors: Xian Fei Xia, Kai Wu, Qing Peng Zhu, Yu Sun, Qing Hai Jiang
Abstract: Biomass is a kind of important renewable energy resource, while the solidification technology provides an effective way for its energy utilization. The current feeding device of the biomass briquetting machine in China is manual or semi-automated, with low production efficiency. A new kind of automatic feeding device has been designed to meet the continuous feed requirements of a production line with the production capacity of 10~12 T/h in this paper. The shaftless screw device can realize continuous material supply, and the batch hopper provide materials for different briquetting machine, at the same time the crank-rocker mechanism provides certain vibration to prevent material clogging. This device gives a uniform material supply with a high degree of automation, which can improve the biomass fuel production effectively proved by practice.
Authors: Ju Fang Wang, Liang Ma, Dong Lu, Xi Cun Dong, Wen Jian Li
Abstract: Sweet sorghum has the advantage to grow on saline-alkaline barren land, and is very suitable to plant in Gansu province for different uses such as feedingstuff and fermentation material. However, in the previous test, it was found that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using sweet sorghum juice produced in Gansu province was as low as 8.5 g/l and could not meet the needs of mass production of yeast and ethanol. To attain high biomass, the optimal culture conditions were investigated. It was found that the proper culture time, temperature, pH and sugar content for yeast growth in sweet sorghum juice were 20 h, 30 °C, 6.0 and 80.5 g/l, respectively. An orthogonal design L9 (34) was used to test the optimal inorganic salt supplement quantity. The results showed that high biomass yield was achieved when the juice was supplemented with 2.0 g/l (NH4)2SO4 which was a little bit different from other report. Finally, the biomass yield of 19.3 g/l and conversion efficiency (yeast to sugars) of 0.452 was obtained in a 10-100 liter bioreactor under the determined optimal conditions. These findings demonstrate that with some modifications on the culture conditions, sweet sorghum juice is a very potential substitute of fermentation material for yeast and ethanol production in Gansu province.
Authors: Xiao Yu Ma, Li Li Wang, Su Ping Cui, Ya Li Wang
Abstract: In the present work, a green and sustainable route for preparation of hydrochars and silica from a bio-resource (rice husk) under low temperature and atmospheric pressure was described. This route was achieved with the catalysis of sulfuric acid and NH4F. The sphere-like carbon materials with regular size of about 500nm were obtained at 95°C for 6 h when the acid concentration was 42% and 52%. The obtained yield of silica reached up to 94.6% and the particle size was 50-60nm. The morphology of the hydrochars was controllable by changing the concentration of sulfuric acid. Microstructure of the precipitated silica powder was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The preparation conditions were determined and the recyclability of the process was confirmed experimentally. All the reactants and byproducts were recyclable in this process, without the waste emissions.
Authors: Yang Xie, Cang Su Xu, Dong Hua Fang, Qi Yuan Luo, Jian Ma
Abstract: Research and development in the fast pyrolysis of biomass has been absorbing substantial amounts of human and economic resources over the last two decades, resulting in notable advances in various areas including: characterization and upgrading of pyrolysis bio-oil; novel technologies capable of making use of the energy. This paper provides an updated review of its characteristics of biomass fast pyrolysis oil and a critical analysis of potential applications, such as diesel engines and turbine.
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