Papers by Keyword: Bone Substitute

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Authors: Stefan Berger, Jürgen Weisser, Eberhard Müller, Matthias Schnabelrauch
Abstract: Composite systems composed of nanocrystalline apatites and oligolactide-based polymer networks were prepared resulting in malleable and even injectable formulations which can be cured to compact materials at body temperature. Porous devices with inter-connective porosity were obtained after addition of suitable foaming agents to the composite mixtures. Setting time, porosity and mechanical properties of the composites can be properly adjusted by varying the educt composition. The determined compressive strengths and Young’s moduli of the porous composites perfectly match the mechanical characteristics of cancellous bone material. Preliminary in vitro cell culture experiments with compact composite materials demonstrated their good cytocompatibility. Based on these findings, the synthesized nano-structured composites represent promising candidates for the development of new biomaterials usable in hard tissue regeneration.
Authors: Xiao Jie Lian, Xu Mei Wang, Fu Zhai Cui
Abstract: In the present study, a new antibacterial bone graft substitute has been developed for repairing bone defects and inhibiting related infections at the same time. Calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CSH) was introduced into nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC) to prepare a self-setting in situ bone repair materials. The nHAC/CSH was used as a carrier of vancomycin (VCM) for anti-infection and the treatment of osteomyelitis. The VCM/nHAC/CSH composite was a porous scaffold with porosity of 38.8% and the compressive mechanical strength was about 4.8 MPa. The final setting time was about 15~20 min. The inhibition ratio of VCM/nHAC/CSH was more than 99.8% and the distinct inhibition zone of 18 mm was formed in Staphylococcus aureus bacterium incubation dish with VCM/nHAC/CSH disc in the center of agar matrix for 16 hours of incubation. After incubating 17 days at 37 in vitro, the concentration of vancomycin in elution fluild was around 12 μg/mL. Therefore, the VCM/nHAC/CSH bone substitute presents ideal self-setting antibacterial, cytocompatibility, sustained release properties and has great potential applications for the treatment of bone defect-related infection in orthopedic surgeries.
Authors: M. Strnadová, Z. Strnad, Pavel Šponer, Jana Jirošova, J. Strnad
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoconductive properties of synthetic porous hydroxyapatite prepared by low-temperature microwave processing OssaBase® HA (SPHA) in comparison with biological apatite, non-sintered deproteinized bovine bone Bio-Oss® (DBB). The materials were implanted into the bone sockets of the tibia of Beagle dogs for 3 and 6 months. The bone response to granules of the materials of similar sizes was compared. Histological analysis of the specimens with histomorphometry was performed at different times after in vivo implantation. Based on the histological analysis, the level of bone formation in the spaces between the implanted granules and through the interconnected pores of both implanted materials within a cortical region was significantly higher (bone area ingrowth 72–85%) than within a cancellous bone site (bone area ingrowth 16–28%) at three and six months after implantation. According to our study, the bioactive and osteoconductive properties (bone implant contact and bone area ingrown) of the synthetic porous hydroxyapatite are very high and comparable with the biological apatite, non-sintered deproteinized bovine bone. The favourable influence of the high specific surface area and carbonate content of the synthetic, porous hydroxyapatite on bone formation was confirmed.
Authors: Rossella Bedini, Deborah Meleo, Raffaella Pecci
Abstract: After a short introduction to bone substitute biomaterials and X-ray microtomography, this article describes a research work carried out for in-vitro characterization of bone substitute biomaterials as well as for in-vivo investigation of human bone grafted with biomaterials. Three different bone substitute biomaterials have been analyzed in-vitro by means of 3D microtomographic technique, while human bone samples grafted with bone substitute biomaterials are investigated by 3D microtomography and histological techniques. 3D images of bone substitutes and human bone samples with biomaterials have been obtained, together with morphometric parameters, by microtomography . 2D histological images have also been obtained by traditional technique only for human bone samples with biomaterials. Compared to traditional histological analysis, 3D microtomography shows better results for investigating bone tissue and bone substitute biomaterial, and in a short time. Nevertheless, histological analysis remains the best technique for the observation of soft tissue and blood vessels.
Authors: H. Noguchi, A. Watanabe, T. Funayama, T. Tsukanishi, Y. Wadano, Masataka Sakane
Abstract: We recently synthesized a novel unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) material with a microstructure consisting of cross-sectional oval pores (diameter, 100-300 μm) . The unidirectional pores of UDPHAp are expected to facilitate the ingrowth of new tissues at sites of implantation. Here, we estimated the osteoinductive capacity of UDPHAp following its implantation in the dorsal muscles of dogs, and also investigated the affinity of UDPHAp for muscle and connective tissues. As a reference material, the HAp porous ceramic product Apaceram® (HOYA, Tokyo, Japan), which is commercially available in Japan and has a different microstructure from UDPHAp, was also used. A cylinder-shaped UDPHAp block was implanted in the dorsal muscles of two beagle dogs. At 1 and 2 years post-implantation, muscle and connective tissues had directly attached to UDPHAp at the upper and lower perforated surfaces. Histological assessment, revealed the direct invasion of fibrous tissues and small capillaries into the unidirectional pores of UDPHAp. Notably, no osseous tissue had formed within UDPHAp. Our findings suggest that the unidirectional pores of UDPHAp are advantageous for the vascularization and invasion of fibrous tissues. However, this unique structure does not contribute to osteoinductive capacity.
Authors: Mihail Nagea, Olivera Lupescu, Gheorghe Ion Popescu, Vasile Iulian Antoniac
Abstract: Modern traumatology is characterised by increasingly severe injuries, with significant soft tissue and bone loss; therefore, restoration of functional anatomy regards bone filling with proper bone integration, and otherwise surgical reconstruction is useless. Therefore, orthopaedic surgeons must have not only surgical skills, but thorough knowledge about the properties and indications of bone substitutes, which can improve surgical results in treating especially comminuted fractures. Integrating the clinical experience from a Level 1 Trauma Centre with didactic principles, and using e-learning as an educational tool, this paper refers to establishing an algorithm of clinical indications of bone substitutes in orthopaedic surgery and to introducing it into the educational process of orthopaedic trainees, as a component of vocational training.
Authors: Allan Aho, Teemu Tirri, Jukka Seppälä, J. Rich, N. Strandberg, T. Jaakkola, Timo Närhi, J. Kukkonen
Authors: Jong Heon Lee, Kang Sik Lee, Jae Suk Chang, Woo Shin Cho, Y. Kim, Soo Ryong Kim, Yung Tae Kim
Authors: Sung Su Chun, Timur R. Tadjiev, Kyo Han Kim, J.H. Lee, Suk Young Kim
Abstract: Degradation characteristics of calcium metaphosphate (CMP) ceramics substituted by 5, 10, 15, 20 mol% of NaPO3 and KPO3, respectively, was evaluated in revised simulated body fluid (R-SBF) by measuring the weight change, flexural strength, crystalline phases, and surface morphology with immersion period. The weight loss of CMP substituted by KPO3 was significantly higher than that of CMP substituted by NaPO3. The weight loss in the KCa(PO3)3–CMP samples was due to the dissolution of KCa(PO3)3 phase. The flexural strength of NaCa(PO3)3–CMP samples increased, however, that of KCa(PO3)3–CMP samples decreased significantly due to the dissolution of KCa(PO3) phase with immersion period. The dissolution of KCa(PO3)3 phase formed a pore structure in KCa(PO3)3–CMP samples.
Authors: Anna Tampieri, Gian Carlo Celotti, Elena Landi, Monica Sandri, Norberto Roveri, G. Falini
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