Papers by Keyword: Cancellous Bone

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Authors: A. Abdul Rahim Rabiatul, Szali Januddi Fatihhi, Muhamad Noor Harun, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, Syahrom Ardiyansyah
Abstract: Morphology of cancellous bone has been studied for years, with researchers always seeking accurate methods to assess the parameters. They also study the importance of cancellous morphology in itself. Despite the amount of previous research, there are currently no reviews on the morphology at different anatomy. This paper evaluate the methods and parameters of cancellous bone morphology at different human anatomy. From 1997 to February 2014 we found the articles published on cancellous bone morphology vary in parameters at different anatomy of human bone. Further, researchers are also interested in finding the precision methods for identifying the parameters of cancellous bone. Both in vitro and in vivo were used in finding the accurate result of cancellous bone parameters whilst also searching the importance of the morphology parameters. The morphology studies are vital due to the direct relation with the mechanical properties of cancellous bone. Based on the morphology data, it is found that the morphology parameters are dissimilar at different human anatomy sites. A variety of methods were used by researchers in identifying the morphology parameters, with each method having its own advantages and disadvantages. This review paper summarises the pros and cons of all methods available, in order to help researchers select the best methods for their future studies.
Authors: Xue Feng Yao, P. Wang, H.Y. Yeh
Abstract: The fracture is an important failure behavior of cancellous bone. Three-point-bending experiment was used to study fracture behavior of cancellous bone. Three group specimens were taken from two human femoral head and there was a non-angled crack and an angled crack in every group respectively. By using Digital Speckle Correlation Method (DSCM), the displacement and strain field were obtained at the crack-tip and the full specimen. The initial crack path was always at the maximal strain location and could be predicted by the DSCM. In the macro-scope, the crack propagation paths towards the load tip, and are independent of the initial crack angle.
Authors: Kazuto Tanaka, Koji Kamada, Tsutao Katayama
Abstract: Nature has developed many novel solutions and extracting these design solutions from nature is known as biomimetics. Cancellous bone contains trabecular bone (solid) and marrow (fluid), plays an important role for load transfer of the knee joint. The objective of this research is to mimick the solid-liquid composition of the cancellous bone and to develop the material that has the excellent load dispersion ability. In the previous research, the solid-liquid composition of the cancellous bone has been modeled as solid-air composites that was made with Al honeycomb and silicon films. Air pressure in cells affected the load dispersion characteristic under static loading condition. In this study, to investigate the influence of the compression speed, impact tests were carried out. We investigated the influence of directions of holes to cell walls, foil thickness, hole diameter and the number of holes on the load dispersion ability. Presence of silicon film and air in cells affected the load dispersion characteristic under dynamic loading condition. Solid - air composition and relaxing local deformation by optimal design improve load dispersion ability.
Authors: Hanae Wakae, Akari Takeuchi, Shigeki Matsuya, Melvin L. Munar, Masaharu Nakagawa, Koh-ichi Udoh, Akihiko Nakashima, Ishikawa Kunio
Abstract: We have previously reported that the carbonate apatite (CAP) foam that has similarities in both inorganic chemical composition and morphology to cancellous bone could be prepared from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam by the hydrothermal treatment with Na2CO3 at 200°C for 24 hrs. However, the crystallinity of the CAP foam was much higher than that of bone. In order to prepare CAP foam similar to cancellous bone in crystallinity as well as its inorganic composition and morphology, this study attempted to prepare CAP foam at lower temperature. Hydrothermal treatment at 100°C allowed low-crystalline CAP foam whereas longer period was imposed for complete conversion of α-TCP foam into CAP foam.
Authors: Moon Kyu Lee, Kui Won Choi, Tae Soo Lee, H.N. Lim
Abstract: The indentation test has been in the spotlight due to easy and non-destructive testing characteristics. However, there are little studies for the indentation test of porous materials in the evaluation aspect of methodology. The goal of this study was to evaluate a spherical indentation test in the aspect of indenter-size and indentation depth by measuring elastic modulus of porous materials such as a cancellous bone using a FEM. We developed a microstructure-based FE model of cancellous bone with apparent density 0.2~0.8 g/cm3 in order to simulate uniaxial compression test and indentation test in the light of anatomical observation with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We obtained a load-displacement curve through the indentation simulation and calculated the Young’s modulus of cancellous structure based on Pharr's hypothesis. The result indicated that indenter diameter has to be more than five times of pore size and indentation depth should be about 8% of indenter diameter at least to obtain the appropriate result of the indentation test. It is expected that this result may guide to the design and the simulation of indentation test for porous materials
Authors: Eugenia Blangino, Ramiro M. Irastorza, Sergio Valente, Fernando Vericat
Abstract: Economical reasons to research and develop new materials are very strong and the main market for biotechnology is human health. Bone is one of the most studied biological material; data and models at different organization levels describe relevant features needed in different applications. Depending on the type of bone, the anatomical location, the human population considered and the level taken into account, the descriptions can differ substantially. In this work, we present a set of properties (mechanical and architectural ones) measured on fresh trabecular bones samples that were extracted from femur heads of live donors with hip total replacement. Standard procedures to preserve the samples were followed. Engineering and clinical tests were performed and custom-built tools were made to adapt the available equipment.
Authors: Ya Bo Yan, Jun Wang, Wei Qi, Yang Zhang, Wei Lei
Abstract: To study whether the architectural parameters are sensitive to the shape of volume of interests in micro-CT scanning, six human C5 body samples were scanned by micro-CT. Cubic and cylindrical volumes of interests were acquired as the length of cubic samples was being changed continually. The nonlinear curve fitting method was employed to explore the correlation between the parameters and the volume of interests. The selected morphological indices showed a significantly variable tendency for the lengths of cubic and cylindrical regions of interests, except the Tb.Th and BS/BV. The Dunnett-t tests were performed to compare the architectural parameters of different region of interests against that of control group. There was no significant difference observed between the architectural parameters from cubic region of interests and that from the cylindrical region of interests.
Authors: Karla Noemy Kun, Lorand Kun, Ramona Nagy, Karoly Menyhardt, Dana Silaghi-Perju, Cristian Sorin Nes, Andor Bogdan
Abstract: This work presents an experimental program to determine the mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the femoral head as a function of location. To achieve this several specimens of cancellous bone of approximately 10 mm height and 10 mm diameter were obtained from one human femoral head, starting the sampling from its main loading compressive direction. All specimens underwent compression testing in order to determine the mechanical properties of each specimen and thus a properties map of the cancellous bone in the femoral head was obtained. Based on the results a parametric file with material properties was created in order to be used by professionals in finite element analysis programs.
Authors: Petr Marcián, Zdeněk Florian, Ladislava Horáčková, Jozef Kaiser, Libor Borák
Abstract: Using porous bioceramics became recently an alternative approach to increase bone density which is a key factor for successful dental implant application. These novel biomaterials should substitute missing natural trabecular structures in terms of material strength as well as deformation characteristics. However, mechanical behavior of these materials used as bone fillers are still in question. This problem is made more difficult by the fact that bone structure itself exhibits a complex mechanical behavior which is still in question as well and, therefore, appropriate analytical criteria should to be established. The purpose of this paper is to determine typical mechanical behavior of trabecular structure of mandibular cancellous bone using computational simulations which can serve as a basis for establishing such criteria. For this purpose, four bone specimens of various bone density were μCT-scanned and high-level finite element models including detailed trabecular structure were created on their basis to analyze relevant mechanical quantities for various loadings in terms of bone density and various histomorphometric parameters.
Authors: Yamina Chelahi Chikr, Benali Boutabout, Ali Merdji, Kheira Bouzouina
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a new three-dimensional model of an osseointegrated molar dental prosthesis and to carry out finite element analysis to evaluate stress distributions and intensities in the bone and in the components of dental prosthesis under three loads (corono-apical, distal-mesial and buccal-lingual) were applied to the top of the occlusal face of the prosthesis crown. The interfacial stresses were also determined inside and outside of the threading when the dental prosthesis system was subjected to one of three masticatory loads. All materials used in the models were considered to be isotropic, homogeneous and linearly elastic. The elastic properties, loads and constraints used in the model were taken from published data. In this study, the stress concentration occurred around the threaded dental implant neck. Thus, this area should be preserved clinically in order to maintain the bone–implant interface structurally and functionally.
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