Papers by Keyword: Cell Viability

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Authors: Jing Gao, Xue Shun Yuan, Yu Wang, Lin Cao, Peng Yu Dong, Bao Cheng Cao
Abstract: The novel TiO2/graphene sheet (TiO2/GSs) nanocomposites were synthesized using graphene oxide sheets and TiCl3. All target composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray electron diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), and the surface areas were tested with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. We studied the cytotoxicity of TiO2/GSs nanoparticles on A549 cells by examining the influence of TiO2/GSs on cell morphology and viability by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. We also determined membrane integrity and apoptosis of A549 cells after different doses of TiO2/GSs exposure by LDH assay and flow cytometry. Assay of A549 cell viability showed regular reductions with a time-and dose-dependent tendency after exposure to pure TiO2, TiO2/4.2wt% GSs and TiO2/6wt% GSs for 24 hrs or 48 hrs. The LDH released and cellular apoptosis also had a dose-dependent effect, which was associated with the surface area of TiO2/4.2wt% GSs. Our results provide essential knowledge of the acceptable biocompatibility of TiO2/GSs nanocomposites, and only when cells were exposed at a high concentration (≥50 μg/mL), and for a prolonged period of time did TiO2/GSs nanoparticles exhibit minimal cytotoxicity against A549 cells.
Authors: Mitali Kakran, Lin Li
Abstract: Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Graphene Have Attracted Tremendous Attention as the Most Promising Carbon Nanomaterials in the 21st Century for a Variety of Applications such as Electronics, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Neuroengineering, Gene Therapy and Biosensor Technology. For the Biomedical Applications, Cnts Have Been Utilized over Existing Drug Delivery Vectors due to their Ability to Cross Cell Membranes Easily and their High Aspect Ratio as Well as High Surface Area, which Provides Multiple Attachment Sites for Drug Targeting. Besides, it Has Also Been Proved that the Functionalization of CNTs May Remarkably Reduce their Cytotoxic Effects and at the Same Time Increase their Biocompatibility. So, the Functionalized CNTs Are Safer than Pristine or Purified CNTs, Thus Offering the Potential Exploitation of Nanotubes for Drug Administration. On the other Hand, More Recently Graphene and its Derivatives Have Been Enormously Investigated in the Biological Applications because of their Biocompatibility, Unique Conjugated Structure, Relatively Low Cost and Availability on both Sides of a Single Sheet for Drug Binding. In Our Study, we Have Covalently Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Graphene Oxide (GO) with Highly Hydrophilic and Biocompatible Excipients in Order to Increase their Aqueous Solubility and Biocompatibility. Various Excipients Used Were Polyvinyl Alcohol, Pluronic F38, Tween 80 and Maltodextrin. The Poorly Water-Soluble Anticancer Drugs such as, Camptothecin and Ellagic Acid, Were Loaded onto the Functionalized MWCNTs and GO via Non-Covalent Interactions. Furthermore, Drug Loading and Cytotoxic Activity of Drugs Incorporated with the Functionalized MWCNTs and GO as Nanocarriers Were Also Investigated. Drugs Loaded on both Carbon Nanocarriers Exhibited a Higher Cytotoxic Activity than Free Drug. On the other Hand, No Significant Toxicity Was Found even at Higher Concentrations when the Cells Were Incubated with the Functionalized Mwcnts and GO. Therefore, both these Functionalized Carbon Nanomaterials Are Ideal Carriers for Drug Delivery.
Authors: A. Oliveros, Camilla Coletti, Christopher L. Frewin, Christopher Locke, Ulrich Starke, Stephen E. Saddow
Abstract: An ever-increasing demand for biocompatible materials provides motivation for the development of advanced materials for challenging applications ranging from disease detection to organ function restoration. Carbon-based materials are considered promising candidates because they combine good biocompatibility with high chemical resistance. In this work we present an initial assessment of the biocompatibility of epitaxial graphene on 6H-SiC(0001). We have analyzed the interaction of HaCaT (human keratinocyte) cells on epitaxial graphene and compared it with that on bare 6H-SiC(0001). We have found that for both graphene and 6H-SiC there is evidence of cell-cell and cell substrate interaction which is normally an indication of the biocompatibility of the material.
Authors: Hong Gi Oh, Hyo Geun Nam, Kwang Hwan Jhee, Joon Mook Lim, Kwang Soup Song
Abstract: We investigate the effect of cell culture conditions, using pristine graphene sheets as growth substrate, on the human nerve cell line (SH-SY5Y). In order to evaluate cell viability and morphology, we applied the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and fluorescence microscopy of cells stained with Hochest 33342 and Calcein AM. Human nerve cells exhibited 84% viability on pristine graphene sheets compared with control (cell culture polystyrene) after 3 days culturing. Fluorescence data showed that the presence of graphene did not influence cell morphology. These results suggest that graphene sheets may be used for biological applications.
Authors: Piyanut Thitiwuthikiat, Pornanong Aramwit, Sorada Kanokpanont
Abstract: Sericin, one of the two main proteins of silk cocoon besides fibroin, has been wildly used as ingredient in cosmetic products and nutrition supplements; however there are considerable controversial reports on its toxicity to cells and its advantages. This work aimed to investigate cell biocompatibility of sericin both in the systems of blended silk fibroin/sericin and pure sericin films using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The effect of concentration of commercial heat extracted sericin on cell viability was first investigated in the system of silk fibroin/sericin (F/S) films using 2 types of silk fibroin, Bombyx mori Nangnoi Srisaket 1 and Bombyx mori Jul 1/1. For both types of silk fibroin, it was found the lower cell number attached and proliferated on the blended F/S films at all sericin concentrations, compared to that on glass and pure fibroin. However, proliferation rate of cells cultured on the blended F/S films was similar to that of cells cultured on glass and pure fibroin films, as confirmed by population doubling time (PDT). Cytotoxicity of sericin extracted from 4 different methods including heat, acid, alkali and urea treatments was further studied in this work in the system of pure sericin films. It could be seen that acid and urea extracted sericin films showed high percentage of cell attachment at 92% and 88%, respectively. However, number of cells proliferated on all sericin films after 48 h culture was not significantly different. This indicated that L929 cells had different proliferation rate when cultured on different types of sericin films. Among 4 extraction methods, the PDT of cells proliferated on urea extracted sericin film was lowest (27 h) and also lower than that of the blended F/S films. This study suggested that sericin extracted by urea treatment could enhance proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblasts.
Authors: Ryosuke Komai, Keisyu Aritoshi, Kozo Taguchi
Abstract: We used Dielectrophoresis (DEP) to discover healthy cells and estimate the cells activity and viability. In the first experiment, we mixed dead cells with methylene blue solution. We applied voltage of 4V, frequency of 10 kHz and 15 MHz to the electrode [1], and observed the movement of the cells. This experiment proved that DEP could also be used to judge cell’s viability. In the next experiment, we used viable cells and raised water temperature rapidly to apply damage. Temperature of water was fixed at 30 degrees, 40 degrees, 50degrees, 60degrees, and 70 degrees. And we observed the cells movement while changing the frequency. We mixed methylene blue solution with the sample to confirm whether the yeast cells were dead or alive when water temperature was from 50 degrees to 70 degrees. These experiments proved that it was possible to measure the activity of cells by changing the DEP frequency.
Authors: Min Sup Kim, Sang Jun Park, Bon Kang Gu, Chun Ho Kim
Abstract: Chitosan and gelatin has attracted considerable interest owing to its advantageous biological properties such as excellent biocompatibility, biodegradation, and non-toxic properties. In this paper, we investigated the potential of chitosan/gelatin (Chi-Gel) nanofibers mat with enhanced cell viability for use as cell culture scaffolds. The surface morphology, mechanical properties, and initial contact angle analysis of Chi-Gel nanofibers mat were evaluated. The proliferation of human dermal fibroblast cell (HDFs) on Chi-Gel nanofibers mat was found to be approximately 20% higher than the pure chitosan nanofibers mat after 7 days of culture. These results suggest that the Chi-Gel nanofibers mat has great potential for use tissue engineering applications.
Authors: Yu Mi Kim, Young Hoon Jeon, Gwang Chun Jin, Jeong Ok Lim, Woon Yi Baek
Abstract: Intrathecal implants of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells relieve chronic pain by secreting catecholamines, opioids and other neuroactive substances. Recently, macrocapsules with hollow fibers were employed to isolate immunologically xenogeneic chromaffin cells, but the poor viability in vivo of the encapsulated chromaffin cells limited the usefulness of this method. In this study, we used microencapsulation technology to increase the viability of chromaffin cells. Bovine adrenal chromaffin cells were microencapsulated with alginate and poly-L-lysine and implanted intrathecally in a rat using the neuropathic pain model. Intrathecal implants of microencapsulated cells relieved cold allodynia, which is the most prominent symptom of the neuropathic pain model in a rat. Furthermore, the microencapsulated chromaffin cells were morphologically normal and retained their functionality. These findings suggest that the intrathecal implant of microencapsulated chromaffin cells might be a useful method for treating chronic pain.
Authors: N. Blanchemain, G. Mayer, M. Traisnel, Y. Setti, H.F. Hildebrand
Abstract: PE is manufactured by Transysteme with the method of thermocompression of PE powder. This company irradiates PE by YAG LASER. We compared the physical behavior of both samples. The DSC reveals a high and similar crystallinity of PE, before and after YAG LASER treatment. Weattability between PE and Li-PE are similar at about 37 mJ/cm². The difference appears with respect to the surface profile and composition: the roughness is 0.20 µm for PE and 0.29µm for Li- PE. XPS reveals many traces of stripping agents on PE. YAG Laser produces a surface cleaning effect. Biological tests reveal a non-toxicity of the polyethylene powder, an improved proliferation and vitality of L132 cells on Li-PE with respect to untreated PE. We have a 4-fold improvement of proliferation and a 2-fold improvement of vitality on Li-PE with respect to PE. As to morphology and cell adhesion behavior, we have no differences between both samples. Thus the irradiation process of PE by YAG LASER improved the biological behaviors of this polymer due to changes in roughness and to surface cleaning.
Authors: G. Mayer, N. Blanchemain, C. Dupas-Bruzek, M. Traisnel, D. Derozier, L.D. Laude, H.F. Hildebrand
Abstract: LASER Excimer irradiation can modify surface properties for biocompatibility improvement of a medical device. The PETs from 3 different origins were used in this study. The samples have been irradiated by excimer LASER with 10 different energies. The surface profile, the surface energy and the materials crystallinity have been assessed. Biological characterizations were made with human embryonic epithelial cells L132: proliferation, vitality, viability, adhesion with the p-NPP, and morphology. - The profile measurements allowed to establish the ablation threshold, which was 36 mJ/cm². The surface hydrophilic state increased reciprocally with the irradiation intensity. The gain is 13 %. The irradiated and non-irradiated product has identical cristallinity. PET was shown not to be toxic for L132 cells. Cell proliferation and cell vitality showed dose-dependant increases reciprocal to the irradiation energy (from 88 to 138% with respect to control). The correlation was highly significant (R² = 0,8). SEM micrographs show that the cells are better spread on the surface of irradiated PET than on untreated PET.
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