Papers by Keyword: Crystallization

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Authors: Viktor Majerník, Jozef Krištiak, Ondrej Šauša, Martina Iskrová-Miklošovičová
Abstract: Positron annihilation lifetime measurements have been performed on three molecular systems: propylene carbonate, salol and m-toluidine at the temperature range from 20 K up to 300 K. The time dependences of the orthopositronium lifetime and intensity have been observed at the temperature range between a solid state and the liquid state. These changes can be explained as transitions from the amorphous phase to one or two crystalline phases. The crystallization process from cooled liquid was observed in all three cases at different temperatures on the time scale up to 60 hours.
Authors: Xiu Yun Li, Li Yang, De Chun Liu
Abstract: The crystallization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and polypropylene/polyethylene-glycol (iPP/PEG) blends were investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). It was found that the existence of polyethylene-glycol(PEG) does not destroy the helical structure of iPP in the melt, but changes the crystal structure of iPP in the bends. Moreover, the variation tendency of ratios of intensity A998 cm-1/A1460 cm-1 for iPP and iPP/PEG blends showed that the the onset crystallization temperature of iPP is improved by addition of PEG until the PEG content reaches to 5 wt%, and beyond this content, the crystallization point decreases.
Authors: Takahiko Kawai, Shin-ichi Kuroda
Abstract: The structure development of poly (L-lactic acid)(PLLA) during the uniaxial drawing was investigated by means of in-situ simultaneous wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. When the quenched amorphous film of PLLA was drawn at 77.2 oC, which was well above the glass transition temperature of PLLA, two different crystal structures were formed depending on the strain. The mesophase, which has 103 helix with large amount of packing disorder, was formed at the early stage of drawing, followed by the crystal transformation into α’ form (ε ≥ 1.5). SAXS measurement showed that the kebab formation begins at the stage later than that of meso-α’ transition. It strongly suggests that the transition takes place inside the shish structure. The development of kebab leads to the enhancement of mechanical response, which is found to be the origin of the strain hardening of PLLA.
Authors: Shi Ling Guo, Zi Yang Yu, Yi Liang Chen, Xin Xing Chen
Abstract: Zeolite NaKL was in-situ crystallized under static condition with kaolin microspheres calcined at 980 °C as silicon and aluminium sources. Influences of hydrothermal synthesis conditions such as the mole ratio of n(K2O)/n(Na2O), n(OH-)/n(SiO2) and crystallizaion time on crystallization of zeolite L were studied in detail. The crystal phase and morphology of the as-prepared zeolite samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the as-synthesized samples owned characteristic peaks of zeolite L with high crystallinity and were covered uniformly by regular crystal of zeolite L on its kaolin microsphere surface , which maintained complete ball shape as before. The optimum conditions to get zeolite NaKL with high crystallinity by this method were found to be the mole ratio of n(K2O)/n(Na2O) =7:3 and n(OH-)/n(SiO2) =0.50 in the reaction mixture, an aging of the reactants at room temperature for 30 h and crystallization temperature 120 °C for 24 h.
Authors: Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, Karolin Jiptner, Jun Chen, Ronit R. Prakash, Jian Yong Li, Takashi Sekiguchi, Takuto Kojima, Yoshio Ohshita, Atsushi Ogura, Masayuki Fukuzawa, Satoshi Nakano, Bing Gao, Koichi Kakimoto
Abstract: To get the optimized condition and ideal furnace structure, we have performed seed cast growth of mono-crystalline Si by using unidirectional solidification furnace. More than 20 ingots of 10 cm diameter and 10 cm height were grown under different growth conditions. The quality of ingots was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), infrared microscopy, scanning infrared polariscope (SIRP), X-ray topography, etc. We have realized reduction of carbon, residual strain and extended defects, which may contribute the increase of solar cell efficiency.
Authors: Sandrine Cardinal, Ji Chao Qiao, Jean Marc Pelletier
Abstract: The gold alloys are used in jewelry for their aesthetic appearance and inertia to the environment. In jewelry a hardness superior to 300 HV is desirable to facilitate the final machining and reduce the wear of the final product. The maximum hardness that can be obtained with the standard 18 carats gold (Au75-Ag12.5-Cu12.5 (wt%)) through a combination of heat treatment and cold working is about 290 HV. Gold-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are an alternative as they present unique properties in comparison with crystalline counterparts, especially easy thermoplastic processing combined with a high hardness. Pd-base BMGs are another solution, due also to their attractive features.An Au49Cu26.9Si16.3Ag5.5Pd2.3 (% at.) and a Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 (% at.) bulk metallic glasses were fabricated by a copper mould suction casting technique in an argon atmosphere. In the as-cast state hardness, shear modulus and hardness are high (HV0.3= 360 and 530 in the Au-and Pd-base BMGs, respectively). Various heat treatments have been performed to modify the microstructural state. Formation of crystalline particles induces an increase of both shear modulus and hardness but a drastic decrease in toughness and therefore this formation should be absolutely avoided during casting or thermo processing.
Authors: Masaru Iwao, Yoshio Umayahara, Kazuyoshi Shindo
Abstract: For high frequency packaging applications, LTCC materials are required to have a low loss tangent to reduce the total microwave loss. For multi-layered ceramic devices with embedded passive components, besides a loss tangent, a small temperature coefficient of resonance frequency (TCF) is an important factor. To meet these demands, we developed a new LTCC material with a smaller TCF, less than +/-3ppm/oC, and a low loss tangent, 0.0012 at 15GHz. We designed the glass composition to precipitate two low-loss crystal phases during firing at 900 oC. One phase has a plus TCF and the other phase has a minus TCF. We also controlled the amount of the two crystal phases, so these crystal phases and the fixed amount of alumina filler make the sum of TCF for the LTCC material close to zero.
Authors: Artemis Stamboulis, Robert G. Hill, Robert V. Law, Shigeki Matsuya
Authors: Peng Fei Zhang, De Chang Jia, Bin Yang, Guang Xin Wang
Abstract: A mixture of cubic silicon powder, hexagonal boron nitride powder and graphite powder was mechanically alloyed for 30 hrs in argon. The as-milled 2Si-B-3C-N composite powder was heated up to 1900 °C in nitrogen, with a heating rate of 25 °C/min and under a pressure of 80 MPa. XRD and HRTEM results show that the as-milled 2Si-B-3C-N composite powder has a well amorphous structure. Under the current hot-pressing circumstances, the amorphous ceramic starts to crystallize at a temperature between 1800 °C and 1900 °C. Once the temperature is higher than crystallization temperature, crystallites appear in the amorphous matrix with a great nucleation rate, but a small growth rate. Hot pressed at 1900 °C for 0 mins or 10 mins, the prepared 2Si-B-3C-N bulk ceramic has an average grain size of 8.7 nanometers and 22.3 nanometers, respectively. After an intensive literature search, we believe the present work is the first one to make clear that it is possible to use the mechanical alloying route to prepare amorphous Si-B-C-N ceramic with such a high crystallization temperature.
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