Papers by Keyword: Deep Drawing

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Authors: Yuji Kotani, Akihiro Watanabe, Kazuki Nishiumura, Hisaki Watari
Abstract: To lighten total product weights, the local increases in sheet thickness of products effectively contribute to decreasing product weights, when appropriate sheet thickness distribution in product by a designer could be performed by using an accurate prediction method by simulation. The designer only could distribute thick part where needed a large moment inertia of area from the view points of the strength of the section. In the sense of the such optical designing for the variable thickness distribution in the products, we do not need to consider that sheet thickness should be constant in a product. This paper is concerned with a forming prediction during deep drawing process. To clarify the mechanism of increase of sheet thickness, a 3-D forming simulation during deep drawing by finite element method was performed. Effects of tool shapes (contacting angles to the original materials, contacting length of punch with a material) which mainly affects the results on thickness change of original materials were investigated. The thickness distribution of drawn cups was measured in order to compare simulation results obtained by the finite element method. It has been found that controlling sheet thickness distribution was possible if an original material was relatively thick, when in choosing an appropriate manufacturing condition could be selected.
Authors: R.K. Abdel-Magied, H.M.A. Hussein
Abstract: The aim of this work is to develop an integrated system for facilitating the process of designing the drawing dies and their component. The developed system is based on the integration between Computer Aided Process Planning in Sheet Metal Drawn parts “CAPP”, and the Computer Aided Design in Deep Drawing Die components “CAD”. Both modules are coded using Visual Basic program and joined with AutoCAD. The CAPP module made to report the drawing load and to plot the shape of the drawn shell in each stage of the Axis-Symmetric Deep Drawing process. Based on the reported shell geometry, the dimensions of the die components are calculated and transferred to the CAD module. The CAD module, which is based on many data bases (standard parts, sheet metal data), plots the required deep drawing die components for each drawn stage on the AutoCAD monitor. A demonstrated example is presented to validate the developed system and to show that the system results are acceptable.
Authors: Antonio de Pádua Lima Filho, Márcio Iuji Yamasaki, Leandro Akita Ono, Lourenço Nampo, Alcides Padilha
Abstract: A semi solid thin strip continuous casting process was used to obtain 50%wt Pb/50%wtSn strip by single and twin roll processing at speed of 15 m/min. A 50%wt Pb/50%wtSn plate ingot was also cast for rolling conventionally into strips of 1.4 mm thickness and 45 mm width for comparison with those achieved non-conventionally. This hypoeutectic alloy has a solidification interval and fusion temperature of approximately 31°C and 215°C respectively. The casting alloy temperature was around 280°C as measured by a type K immersion thermocouple prior to pouring into a tundish designed to maintain a constant melt flow on the cooling slope during semi solid material production. A nozzle with a weir ensures that the semi solid material is dragged smoothly by the lower roll, producing strip with minimum contamination of slag/oxide. The temperatures of the cooling slope and the lower roll were also monitored using K type thermocouples. The coiled semi solid strip, which has a thickness of 1.5 mm and 45 mm width, was rolled conventionally in order to obtain 1.2 mm thick strip. The coiled thixorolled strip had a thickness of 1.2 mm and achieved practically the same width as the conventional strips. Blanks of 40 mm diameter were cut from the strips in a mechanical press, ready for deep drawing and ironing for mechanical characterization. All the strips achieved from non-conventional processing had the same mechanical performance as those achieved conventionally. The limiting drawing ratio (LDR) achieved was approximately 2.0 for all strips. Microscopy examination was made in order to observe phase segregation during processing.
Authors: M. Bakhshi, A. Gorji, M. Hosseinzade, M. Jamshidi, G. Mohammad-Alinejad
Abstract: Some new sheet hydroforming processes have been introduced during the last few years to increase the application and to overcome some of the limitations in conventional deep drawing. In recent years, the applications of sheet hydroforming have become increased. Nowadays, this technology has been largely accepted by industries for the production of different components with specific characteristics. Despite the advantages of the sheet hydroforming techniques, they have their own disadvantages. In this paper, a new sheet hydroforming technique is presented that improves the applications of the current sheet hydroforming processes. The proposed technique is applied to two complex non-symmetrical industrial parts. It is shown that the new technique can produce the products very well. In addition, it is shown that the forming pressure and load are very low compared with those of other hydrofoming methods.
Authors: Hong Wei Li, He Yang
Abstract: This study developed a new polycrystal plasticity model by deducing a set of linear controlling equations with respect to the controlling equation of rate dependent crystal plasticity (RDCP). It was proved numerically efficient and stable by means of the comparison with experiment and an implicit model. The model was then applied to describe earing in deep drawing process. Remarkable effects of rate sensitivity coefficient of the material, drawing speed and dies clearance on earing were found.
Authors: Lennart Stutz, Julian Quade, Michael Dahms, Dietmar Letzig, Karl Ulrich Kainer
Abstract: Magnesium alloy sheets bear significant potential in replacing conventional materials such as aluminium and steels in ultra lightweight designs. High specific strength and stiffness, combined with the lowest density of all structural metals make magnesium alloy sheets candidates to face the challenges of reducing vessel weight in the transportation industry and thus, green house gas emissions. For forming components from sheet metal, deep drawing is a well established and commonly applied process. Due to the limited formability of magnesium sheets at room temperature, deep drawing processes have to be conducted at elevated temperatures. In the present study, hot deep drawing experiments on an industrial scale hydraulic press were successfully conducted. Forming was done at moderately low temperatures from 150°C to 250°C. Sheets of the magnesium alloy AZ31B (Mg-3Al-1Zn-Mn) were drawn to symmetrical cups according to Swift. For AZ31, distinct basal type textures are formed during hot rolling. The influence of texture on earing is displayed. The microstructural evolution of the material is dominated by the formation of twins and dynamic recrystallisation. By optimising the process, a drawing ratio of 2.9 was achieved for AZ31 sheet, outperforming conventional materials at ambient temperature.
Authors: Takahiro Ohashi, Wan Tong
Abstract: In this study, the authors employ a multi-point die-support structure to hold the upper die for deep drawings in order to adjust the distribution of the blank holding force (BHF) so as to eliminate wrinkles. The developed multi-point support structure has 12 support cells (support units) between the upper die and the outer slide of a double-action press; the cells are metal cylinders working as springs. The support unit has a ball contact at the interface with the upper die, and the interface freely rotates and slides horizontally. The support unit has strain gauges on the side surface, and the bearing load at each unit can be determined, as well as the elastic deformation. The bearing load distribution is observed through a trial blow, and then the support units are manually relocated to better distribute the supporting points to create the appropriate BHF distribution. To demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested structure, the authors perform deep drawing with off-centered setting of a blank to create wrinkles intentionally. They then employ the multi-point die-support system, relocate the support units, and eliminate wrinkles.
Authors: Ekkard Brinksmeier, Oltmann Riemer, Christian Robert, Sven Twardy
Abstract: This paper presents two alternative approaches in mold making for micro forming processes. The quality of formed micro parts is mainly dominated by the process parameters and the surface characteristics of the applied forming tools. Forming dies with advanced micro structures can improve the result of forming processes compared to tools with smooth surfaces. Here an approach of micro ball end milling is described to generate the macro geometry as well as an engineered surface texture on micro forming tools in one machining step. In addition to the surface topography, the die material has a decisive influence on the forming result and durability of the forming tool. Therefore single crystalline diamond represents an promissing material for forming tools, because of its unique material characteristics. On the other hand single crystalline diamond requires unreasonable high efforts for its geometrical shaping. Therefore, this paper will introduce a new approach to machine single crystalline diamond by thermo-chemical material removal.
Authors: Sutasn Thipprakmas
Abstract: High-quality stamped parts using cost-effective production technique are increasingly required, especially in parts with complex geometry wherein forming defects are easily generated. In this study, the concave and convex wall features were investigated for a stainless steel rectangular tray using the finite element method and related experiments. The concave and convex wall phenomena were theoretically clarified on the basis of stress distribution. The effects of tray geometry were also investigated. Increasing both the rectangle size and depth of tray, together with a decrease in the corner radius, resulted in an increase in concave wall generation. However, the effects of increasing the length or width of the rectangle affecting the concave wall were independent of each other. In addition, the application of a very large depth of tray resulted in a convex feature. The results showed that it is difficult to achieve a straight wall on both the ‘length’ and ‘width’ sides without the use of draw bead. The finite element simulation results showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental results, with reference to the material thickness distribution in both the cases of: absence of the draw bead formation; and presence of the draw-bead formation.
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