Papers by Keyword: Densification

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Authors: Ming He Cao, Wan Qiang Wang, Zhi Yong Yu, Hua Hao, Han Xing Liu
Abstract: (1-x)(K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.84Ta0.10Sb0.06)O3-xSrTiO3 (KNNT-ST) lead free piezoelectric ceramics have been synthesized by a solid state reaction method. The effect of SrTiO3 content on the piezoelectric properties, sintering behavior and microstructure of (1-x) KNNT-x ST ceramics was investigated. The experimental results showed that the addition of SrTiO3 can restrain the volatilization of Na ions and K ions and improve relative density of the samples. A morphotropic phase boundary between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases is found in the composition range of 0.03
Authors: M. Ahmadian, M. Reid, Rian Dippenaar, Tara Chandra, David Wexler, Andrzej Calka
Abstract: The densification behavior of WC composites based on iron aluminide binder was investigated using laser scanning confocal mi¬croscopy (LSCM). Doped Fe60Al40 alloys with boron levels ranging from 0 to 0.1 wt% were used as the aluminide binders. The aluminide binders were prepared using controlled atmosphere ring grinding and then blended with WC powder. The composite powder compacted in an alumina crucible and held in a platinum holder in the confocal microscope. The temperature increased from ambient temperature up to 1500 °C under high purity argon. The presence of boron was found to facilitate compaction of the composites and improve the wetting between WC and FeAl binder during liquid phase sintering. Increasing the amount of boron in the binder resulted in the melting of binder at lower temperature and increasing of the compacting of the intermetallic tungsten carbide composites.
Authors: N.W. Othman, A. Ramli, N. Osman, S.S.C. Abdullah, M.E.A. Rahman
Abstract: Ultra-fine powder of Ba (Ce,Zr)O3 was prepared by a sol-gel method using metal nitrate salts as pre-cursor. The powder was compacted using hydraulic press with pressure of 45 kg/m2 for 5 min to produce four different pellets. They were sintered at two temperature profiles using two-step sintering (TSS) process. The first temperature profile was fixed at T1 = 1450°C and the second temperature profile was varies from T2 = 1300°C, 1350°C and 1400°C, respectively. For a comparison, the pellet was also sintered using conventional step sintering (CSS) with temperature of T = 1450°C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images for the fracture surface showed that the grain growth for the pellet sintered at T2 = 1350°C was suppressed compared to others. Majority of it grain size was in the range of 100 to 390 nm. For densification study, all the pellets sintered using TSS profile exhibited lower density than CSS method. Even though TSS method can retard the grain growth but in terms of densification, CSS method is better than TSS.
Authors: Seung Chae Yoon, Do Minh Nghiep, Sun Ig Hong, Z. Horita, Hyoung Seop Kim
Abstract: Manufacturing bulk nanostructured materials with least grain growth from initial powders is challenging because of the bottle neck of bottom-up methods using the conventional powder metallurgy of compaction and sintering. In this study, bottom-up type powder metallurgy processing and top-down type SPD (Severe Plastic Deformation) approaches were combined in order to achieve both full density and grain refinement of metallic powders. ECAP (Equal-Channel Angular Pressing), one of the most promising processes in SPD, was used for the powder consolidation method. For understanding the ECAP process, investigating the powder density as well as internal stress, strain and strain rate distribution is crucial. We investigated the consolidation and plastic deformation of the metallic powders during ECAP using the finite element simulations. Almost independent behavior of powder densification in the entry channel and shear deformation in the main deformation zone was found by the finite element method in conjunction with a pressure dependent material yield model. Effects of processing parameters on densification and density distributions were investigated.
Authors: Veena Tikare, Michael V. Braginsky, Didier Bouvard, Alexander Vagnon
Abstract: An experimental validation of a 3D kinetic, Monte Carlo model for simulation of microstructural evolution during solid state sintering will be presented. The model – a statistical mechanical model, which can simulate curvature-driven grain growth, pore migration, and vacancy formation, diffusion and annihilation – is validated by comparing microstructural evolution obtained experimentally for a copper powder compact. The 3D microstructural evolution of copper powder particles sintering was imaged in-situ by microtomography. The images show particles with internal porosity percolating through the particles. Microstructural features – e.g., neck formation and growth – from the experimental images as well as the overall densification rates are compared to the simulations.
Authors: Da Li, Shaou Chen, Wei Quan Shao, Xiao Hui Ge, Yong Cheng Zhang, Sha Sha Zhang
Abstract: Master sintering curve (MSC), in which the sintered density is a unique function of the integral of a temperature function over time, is insensitive to the heating path. In this paper, the densification of rutile TiO2 was continuously recorded at heating rates of 2 °C/min and 5 °C/min, respectively, by dilatometer. The MSC for rutile TiO2 was constructed for pressureless sintering using constant heating rate date based on the combined-stage sintering model. The construction and application of the MSC were described in detail for different thermal histories. The MSC can be used to predict and control the densification, final density, and microstructure evolution during the whole sintering. The final density can be predicted for an arbitrary temperature–time path. A good consistence exists between the predicted and experimental densification curve, confirming that it is possible to accurately predict and control the sintering behavior of TiO2 from the initial to final stage of sintering using MSC.
Authors: Ana Lucia D. Skury, Carlos A. Oliveira Monteiro, Guerold Sergueevitch Bobrovinitchii, Sérgio Neves Monteiro
Abstract: In the present work, by selecting Si3N4, TiB2 and Al2O3 as binding agents as well as La3O2 as an additive, sintered wBN composites were studied. By modifying the number of sintering cycles, the composites processed at 4.5GPa and 1800°C showed improved mechanical properties. The degree of transformation of the wBN, as well as the chemical reactions during the sintering process were discussed. This new composite material was found to present polycrystalline structure that provides superior cutting properties. Moreover, owing to superior properties, the wBN composite sharpens itself during cutting.
Authors: Yong Bae Kim, Jong Sup Lee, Sang Mok Lee, Hoon Jae Park, Geun An Lee
Abstract: AZO (Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide) is widely used to produce transparent conductive coatings for liquid crystal displays, flat panel displays, plasma displays, touch panels, and electronic ink applications. The densification behavior of AZO powder is a critical factor related to the design of the compaction process. In this study, the densification behavior of AZO powder during cold compaction has been investigated in order to calibrate the modified Drucker-Prager Cap (DPC) model for FE simulations. A compaction test with a cylindrical die was carried out, and two failure tests were performed: the diameteral compression test and the uniaxial compression test. AZO compacts with various densities from the compact tests were used as specimens for the failure tests. Based on the experimental results, the parameters of the modified DPC model were determined through simple manipulations.
Authors: Quang Pham, Young Gi Jeong, Seung Chae Yoon, Sun Ig Hong, Soon Hyung Hong, Hyoung Seop Kim
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been the subject of intensive study for applications in the fields of nanotechnologies in recent years due to their superior mechanical, electric, optical and electronic properties. Because of their exceptionally small diameters (≈ several nm) as well as their high Young’s modulus (≈ 1 TPa), tensile strength (≈ 200 GPa) and high elongation (10-30%) in addition to a high chemical stability, CNTs are attractive reinforcement materials for light weight and high strength metal matrix composites. In this study, bottom-up type powder processing and top-down type SPD (severe plastic deformation) approaches were combined in order to achieve full density of CNT/metal matrix composites with superior mechanical properties by improved particle bonding and least grain growth, which were considered as a bottle neck of the bottom-up method using the conventional powder metallurgy of compaction and sintering. ECAP (equal channel angular pressing), the most promising method in SPD, was used for the CNT/Cu powder consolidation. The powder ECAP processing with 1, 2, 4 and 8 route C passes was conducted at room temperature. It was found by mechanical testing of the consolidated CNT/Cu that high mechanical strength could be achieved effectively as a result of the Cu matrix strengthening and improved particle bonding during ECAP. The ECAP processing of powders is a viable method to achieve fully density CNT-Cu nanocomposites.
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