Papers by Keyword: Diffusion Coating

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Authors: F. Fazlalipour, M. Niki Nushari, N. Shakib, Ali Shokuhfar
Abstract: Hard coatings show various tribological behaviors against different contact materials (counter-faces) during dry sliding depended on their microstructure, surface morphology and encountered tribological systems and condition. In this work, the tribological and wear mechanisms of vanadium carbide (VC) and vanadium nitrocarbide (V(N,C)) layers were examined against WC/Co cemented tungsten carbide pin during pin-on-disk sliding wear testing. The V(N,C) layer was produced by a duplex surface treatment involving the gas pre-nitrocarburising followed by thermo-reactive diffusion (TRD) vanadizing technique. The coating layers were characterized by a cross sectional and morphological examination methods and X-ray diffraction analysis to identify damages of the coating’s surface. Wear mechanisms were determined by SEM microscope in BSI and SE mode accompanied by EDS analysis. Results revealed that the surface morphology of the V(N,C) coating consist of dense and smooth layer in comparison with the VC coating surface which reveals a non-uniform structure with chasms. It was determined that the activation of tribo-chemical system and oxidizing of the coating layer together with minor plastic deformation are the dominant wear mechanism in the V(N,C) coated steel. In the case of the VC coating, combination of abrasive wear and adhesion of pin material to coating and vice versa are the major impairing mechanisms.
Authors: Ammar Naji, Michael Schütze
Abstract: Reformer materials are exposed to severe operating conditions at high temperature in aggressive catalyzer and combustion atmospheres. Therefore, materials used for the construction of the reformer reactor have to possess appropriate high temperature resistance. Diffusion coatings improve the high temperature resistance of materials by enrichment of the alloy surface with thermodynamically stable oxide formers. Beside conventional mono-element diffusion coatings (e.g. Al coating), multi-element diffusion coatings can be developed in a single process step. In this work we developed Al diffusion and Al-Si and Al-Si-RE (RE: reactive element Y, Ce) co-diffusion coatings on a low cost austenitic 18Cr10Ni-steel. The high temperature resistance of coated and uncoated 18Cr10Ni-steel, 20Cr31Ni-steel and 23Cr18Fe-Ni base alloy was tested in catalyzer and combustion atmosphere under cyclic operation conditions.
Authors: Michael Schütze
Abstract: The paper reviews the advantages of diffusion coating and the parameters deciding an optimum coating performance. Furthermore, innovative coating approaches are presented which have a significant potential beyond existing diffusion coating solutions.
Authors: Martin Juliš, Karel Obrtlík, Simona Hutařová, Tomáš Podrábský, Jaroslav Polák
Abstract: High temperature low cycle fatigue behaviour of cast nickel-based superalloy Inconel 738LC in as-received condition and coated with an Al-Si diffusion layer was studied. The Al-Si protective layer was deposited on the gauge section of cylindrical specimens using the slurry technique. Fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens under total strain control in symmetrical cycle at 800 °C in air. The coating has a beneficial effect on fatigue life in the low amplitude domain. The stress response of the coated material is higher for high amplitudes in comparison with the uncoated one. Fracture surfaces and sections parallel to the specimen axis have been examined to study fatigue damage mechanisms.
Authors: Kang Yuan, Ru Lin Peng, Xin Hai Li, Sten Johansson
Abstract: High-cycle-fatigue (HCF) fracture mechanism of nickel-based superalloy IN 792 coated with Pt-modified aluminide outward-diffusion coating is studied with focus on the influence of coating cracks. It is found that cracking of the diffusion coating prior to HCF tests has little influence on the fatigue limit of specimens with thin coating (50 μm) but lowers the fatigue limit of specimens with thick coating (70 μm). By fractographic analysis, three types of fractural modes are established according to their crack initiations: internal, external and mixed. While external fractural mode is related to the propagation of existing cracks in the coating, internal facture initiates often at Ti-Ta-W-rich carbides and/or topological-close-packed (TCP) phases and grainboundaries in the superalloy. Increasing the thickness of diffusion coating or the amplitude stress promotes the fractural mode transition from internal/mixed to external. The influence of precracking of coatings on the HCF fracture mechanism can be qualitatively explained by its influence on the stress intensity factor.
Authors: Karel Obrtlík, Simona Hutařová, Martin Juliš, Tomáš Podrábský, Jaroslav Polák
Abstract: Cylindrical specimens of Inconel 713LC in as-cast condition and with Al diffusion coating by the CVD technique were cyclically strained under total strain control at 800 °C. Hardening/softening curves, cyclic stress-strain curves, and fatigue life curves are obtained. The coating has a beneficial effect on the Manson-Coffin curve while the fatigue life is reduced in the Basquin representation. The stress response of the coated material is lower in comparison with the uncoated one. Sections parallel to the specimen axis have been examined to study fatigue damage mechanisms.
Authors: Lucjan Swadźba, A. Maciejny, Boleslaw Formanek, B. Mendala
Authors: Alexander S. Chaus, Lubomír Čaplovič, Ján Porubský
Abstract: CBN diffusion coating on the ball nose end mills made of AISI-M35 high speed steel (HSS) has been produced thermo-chemically. The microstructure and component depth profiles of the CBN diffusion layer have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results on laboratory cutting tests of ball nose end mills made of AISI-M35 HSS with and without complex CBN diffusion coating are also introduced in the paper. The relationship between wear kinetics and tool life has been established. It was shown that under the used cutting conditions the tool life of the mills with the coating was a factor of 1.6 higher than that of the mills without the coating. The higher tribological stability of the coating in cutting process was supported by metallographic observations of the worn surfaces using scanning electron microscopy.
Authors: Vladislav Kolarik, Maria Juez-Lorenzo, M. Anchústegui, Harald Fietzek
Abstract: Spherical Al particles sized in the range of 2 to 5 μm were deposited with an organic binder by brushing on the austenitic steel X6 CrNi 18-10 (Alloy 304H). The coated samples were annealed in air at 400°C for 1 h in order to expel the binder. For studying the oxidation behaviour in air, isothermal experiments were performed at 700°C and 900°C with oxidation times of 5 h, 100 h and 1000 h. The oxide formation was studied in situ by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) up to 100 h. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was applied to investigate the surface and the cross-section of the particle coating. During oxidation, the stable α-Al2O3 was identified in situ by HT-XRD on all studied samples at both temperatures. No meta-stable alumina phases were found. In the initial state, 2 h at 900°C, the Al particles are completely oxidised to hollow alumina spheres, controlled predominantly by the reaction due to the small particle size and relatively high surface portion. Simultaneously, the Alrich diffusion layer is formed in the substrate. On further exposure, a thin protective alumina scale continues growing on the top of the diffusion layer. After exposure to both 700°C and 900°C, a coating structure was encountered, which consists of a quasi-foam top coat from conjoint hollow spherical alumina particles and an Al-rich diffusion layer below. The quasi-foam top coat has the potential to effectuate as thermal barrier by gas phase insulation, while the diffusion layer below serves as protective coating against oxidation. The approach by particle size processing opens a potential for obtaining a complete thermal barrier coating system in one manufacturing step. The coating properties can be adjusted by parameters like selection of source metal/alloy, particle size, substrate, binder and heat treatment.
Authors: Bartłomiej Wierzba, Sébastien Chevalier, Olivier Politano, Marek Danielewski
Abstract: This paper presents a numerical method to determine the composition dependent diffusivities and to predict the concentration profile during the interdiffusion process. The intrinsic diffusion coefficients in diffusion aluminide coatings (Fe-Al) were determined at 1000oC. The obtained diffusion coefficient for iron in Fe3Al or FeAl is in the range 10-10 to 10-9 cm2.s-1. The aluminum diffusion coefficient varies from 10-11 to 10-7 cm2.s-1 in the same phases.The present approach also permits to model the reactive diffusion in the Fe-Al systems.
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