Papers by Keyword: Electrolyte

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Authors: Hui Zhao, Zhen Liu, Zhong Han
Abstract: Characteristics of ceramic coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation in silicate and phosphate electrolytes have been investigated in this study. This study reveals that the thickness of the ceramic coatings increases with the treated time in both electrolytes, the growth rate of ceramic layer in phosphate is faster than that in silicate electrolyte. The surface roughness of the ceramic coating formed in phosphate electrolyte is higher than that formed in silicate electrolyte. The coatings formed in silicate, containing a thicker inner barrier layer and a thinner outer porous layer, consist of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and MgSiO3 phases. For the coatings formed in phosphate, the outer porous layer is thicker than the inner layer, it consist mainly of MgO and MgAlO4 phases.
Authors: Si Yu Liu, Ming Fu Yu, Ye Wan, Hong Sun
Abstract: In this paper, a three-dimension model for the vanadium redox flow battery was established to simulate its mass transfer. The distribution of VO2+and VO2+ in positive electrode area, the distribution of V2+ and V3+ in the negative electrode area, and the influences of flow velocity, temperature and the electrolyte concentration on the mass transfer are analyzed. The results show that the mass fraction of VO2+ and V2+ decrease while those of VO2+and V3+increase along the channel direction; the species concentration under the ridge is lower than that under the flow channel. The flow velocity of electrolyte affects the mass distribution at the entrance of the cell, and hardly affects the electrochemical reaction rate; Increase of the temperature accelerates the electrochemical reaction rate; the electrolyte concentration affects both of the mass distribution and the number of ions. The study has great significance both on the optimization of vanadium redox flow battery and its application.
Authors: I. Birkby, Ron Stevens
Authors: Shi You Li, Jin Liang Liu, Xiao Ling Cui, Li Ping Mao
Abstract: Olivine-type LiFePO4 and crystal structure LiMn2O4 or LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 are promising cathode materials for electric vehicles (EVs) applications. To find more appropriate electrolyte systems to exert the perfect electrochemical performance of LiFePO4, LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes, the electrochemical performances of LiBOB-ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC)/diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte are investigated in this paper. In LiFePO4/Li, LiMn2O4/Li and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li cells, this novel electrolyte exhibits several advantages, such as stable cycle performance and good rate performance. It suggests that LiBOB-EC/EMC/DEC electrolyte has good compatibility with the three kinds of cathodes, and would be an attractive electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries based upon LiFePO4, LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes.
Authors: A. Chindaduang, Pattasuda Duangkaew, Sirapat Pratontep, Gamolwan Tumcharern
Abstract: We focus on the energy conversion improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells by using poly(ethylene oxide)-multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEO-MWCNT) electrolyte. Compared with the MWCNT-free solar cells, the addition of 0.05 wt.% MWCNTs in the polymer electrolyte results in a dramatic increase of the short-circuit current (Jsc), consequently raising the device performance by approximately 9% under a direct light of the Air Mass 1.5 irradiation at 100 mW cm-2. The role of the conductive carbon materials in the polymer electrolyte have been investigated by means of ionic conductometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. This work demonstrates that MWCNT additives in polymer electrolytes is a convenient yet effective strategy for improving the performance of photovoltaic devices.
Authors: Jun Kikuchi, Seiji Koga, Katsuyuki Kishi, Morihiro Saito, Jun Kuwano
Authors: S.Y. Jaffar, Yussof Wahab, Rosnita Muhammad, Z. Othaman, Zuhairi Ibrahim, N. Nayan, R.K. Tan
Abstract: Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films were deposited successfully using RF magnetron sputtering. The substrate had been used are sapphire glass. A pure ceramic of Zr-Y is synthesized and processed into a planar magnetron target which is reactively sputtered with an Argon-Oxygen gas mixture to form Zr-Y-O nanostructure. The aim of this research is to study the conductivity and roughness YSZ thin film by using RF magnetron sputtering by varying the temperature deposition parameter. By lowering the YSZ thin film into nanostructure would enable for SOFC to be operate at lower temperature below 400°C. The YSZ nanostructure were controlled by varying the deposition parameters, including the deposition temperature and the substrate used. The crystalline of YSZ structure at 100W and temperature 300°C. The surface morphology of the films proved that at 300°C temperature rate deposition showed optimum growth morphology and density of YSZ thin films. Besides, the high deposition subtrate temperature affected the thickness of YSZ thin film at 80nm by using surface profiler. A higher rate of deposition is achievable when the sputtering mode of the Zr-Y target is metallic as opposed to oxide. YSZ is synthesizing to obtain the optimum thin film for SOFC application.
Authors: Sridhara Acharya
Abstract: Copper electro-refining (Cu-ER) is the principal method for producing >70% of high or 99.97% pure copper cathodes from 97-99% pure blister/fire refined-scrap copper anodes. While the inert and most of less soluble impurities settle as anode slime/sludge, other soluble impurities, particularly the metalloids (group VA/15 elements or Q: As, Sb and Bi) and some transition metals (Mt) co-dissolved with Cu(II). Since the soluble impurities build up in the copper refining electrolyte (CRE) which need monitoring and control to prevent contamination of the cathodes and passivation of the anodes before bleeding for spent CRE reprocessing. There is a high demand for pure electrorefined copper and electrolyte additives are added to the CRE to prevent nodulation or control the chemical and physical properties of copper cathodes. Various hydrometallurgical methods such as precipitation, adsorption, electro-dialysis, electro-winning, ion exchange and solvent extraction have been developed with some success to control the CRE impurities. So some emerging technologies for improved monitoring and control of the metalloid impurities in CRE and slime as well as development of saleable byproduct recovery (As, Sb, Bi) are briefly reviewed with particular emphasis on the precipitation for the metalloid slime resource recycling and product development.
Authors: Rubens Chiba, Reinaldo Azevedo Vargas, Marco Andreoli, Thais Aranha Barros Santoro, Emília Satoshi Miyamaru Seo
Abstract: The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an electrochemical device generating of electric energy, constituted of cathode, electrolyte and anode; that together they form a unity cell. The study of the solid oxide half-cells consisting of cathode and electrolyte it is very important, in way that is the responsible interface for the reduction reaction of the oxygen. These half-cells are ceramic materials constituted of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) for the cathode and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) for the electrolyte. In this work, two solid oxide half-cells have been manufactured, one constituted of LSM cathode thin film on YSZ electrolyte substrate (LSM - YSZ half-cell), and another constituted of LSM cathode and LSM/YSZ composite cathode thin films on YSZ electrolyte substrate (LSM - LSM/YSZ - YSZ half cell). The cathode/electrolyte solid oxide half-cells were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results have been presented with good adherence between cathode and electrolyte and, LSM and YSZ phases were identified.
Authors: Jun Zhang, Ying Li Zhu, Gang Qi, Jian Yu Li
Abstract: Low temperature fuel cells are promising environment-friendly energy conversion systems with high energy density and efficiency to be used as components of electronic devices for stationary and portable applications. In this paper, the key materials of the three types low temperature fuel cells are introduced, and the most recent advances related to the key materials and their character are reviewed. The current status of materials for electrolyte, catalyst and electrode materials is focused on.
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