Papers by Keyword: Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)

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Authors: Ya Ming Huang, Qiang Fu, Chun Xu Pan
Abstract: Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has been developed as a novel technique for characterizing crystallographic textures in recent years. The present paper proposes an “in-situ-tracking” approach using SEM and EBSD to examining the microstructural development and grain boundary variation of stainless steel during elevated 1200 °C service. The results revealed that in addition to the coarsened grains the fraction of low angle grain boundaries (LABG) became increased and flattened obviously during service. Comparing to the regular high temperature service (below 900 °C), the present “recovery and recrystallization” process was accelerated due to dislocation fastened movement and intensive interaction. However, the grain growth mechanism still meet the well-accepted dislocation model of subgrain combination.
Authors: Helmut Schaeben, Markus Apel, Tobias Frank, Marcin Iwanowski, Stefan Zaefferer
Authors: Valerie Randle, Gregory Owen
Abstract: Grain boundary engineering (GBE) has been carried out on copper and brass. A comparison of the resulting microstructure and grain boundary characteristics from the two specimens revealed that the brass specimen had approximately the same number fraction of Σ3s as the copper specimen (38%), but a lower number fraction of Σ9s and Σ27s and a markedly different microstructure. In the brass specimen twins were not incorporated into the grain boundary network, whereas in the copper specimen Σ3s replaced portions of the grain boundary network. These two mechanisms are discussed in detail.
Authors: Pierre Blaineau, Lionel Germain, Michel Humbert, Nathalie Gey
Abstract: We propose a new approach to automatically reconstruct the  orientation map from the ’ map inherited by the bainitic or martensitic ’ phase transformation. Our model comprises two main steps (1) identification of reliable fractions of parent grains – each  fraction orientation is determined from neighbouring variants related to a unique  orientation with a low tolerance angle; (2) expansion of these fractions by collecting adjacent variants being in orientation relation (OR) with the  orientation of the initial fraction - using now a higher tolerance around the strict OR. The code was tested on ’ maps we built from reference  maps to control some characteristics of the transformation, i.e. the type of OR used, the spread around OR, the number of inherited variants. The results show that even with a large spread around OR, the shape and orientation of most of the  grains are accurately calculated.
Authors: Dirk M. Kirch, A. Ziemons, I. Lischewski, Dmitri A. Molodov, Günter Gottstein
Abstract: A novel high temperature heating method in combination with automated EBSD-data acquisition is presented. A commercially available infrared laser is utilized to heat samples up to a temperature of about 1000°C in high vacuum in a SEM while acquiring EBSD-data of the microstructure. First results on the γ-α-γ phase transformation between 840°C and 865°C in a microalloyed ferritic low carbon steel is presented.
Authors: Francisco Cruz-Gandarilla, Richard Penelle, Hector Mendoza León, Thierry Baudin, J. Gerardo Cabañas-Moreno
Authors: Michael Ferry, John F. Humphreys
Abstract: Copper single crystals of {110}<001> crystallographic orientation were cold rolled to a true strain of 1.4. Specimens were cut from the as-deformed crystals with all surfaces mechanically ground and deep-etched in concentrated nitric acid to minimise the likelihood of surface nucleation of recrystallized grains during subsequent annealing. The early stages of static recovery were studied by annealing specimens at 300 oC. The crystallographic features of the deformed and annealed microstructures were determined by high resolution electron backscatter diffraction. It was observed that deformation was homogeneous with the microstructure in ND-RD plane exhibiting two complementary sets of intersecting bands at ~+ 35o to ND. Along these bands and in the microstructure, in general, there was an overall spread in orientation about ND towards {110}<112>. However, the orientation spread along these bands was cyclic, that is, sinusoidal orientation gradients were generated about ND with amplitude of up to 20o and wavelength 5-10 µm. Annealing resulted in the preferred growth of cells that have orientations at the edge of the orientation spread of the deformation substructure. This localized coarsening of the microstructure is similar to the discontinuous subgrain growth observed in {110}<001> oriented Al single crystals and indicates that discontinuous subgrain (cellular) growth can also occur in metals of lower stacking fault energy.
Authors: You Liang He, Stéphane Godet, Pascal J. Jacques, John J. Jonas
Abstract: The crystallographic relationship between the g and a phases in samples of the Gibeon meteorite and a TRIP steel was investigated by means of EBSD techniques. The orientations of the two phases were measured and are represented in pole figures. The results are compared to predictions made on the basis of the Bain, Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S), Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW), Greninger-Troiano (G-T) and Pitsch orientation relationships. The local misorientation between individual fcc and bcc crystals along their common interface was measured to demonstrate the way in which the exact orientation relationship varies along the boundary. The local orientations within lamellae and laths of kamacite and bainite are compared to that in recrystallised ferrite polygons. The occurrence of variant selection during the transformation of deformed austenite is analyzed using a recent dislocation-based model.
Authors: J. Dennis, Pete S. Bate, John F. Humphreys
Abstract: Grain growth may occur in two forms, normal grain growth, characterized by a constant grain size distribution during growth, and abnormal grain growth, where one or more abnormally large grains may form in the microstructure. The presence of abnormally large grains in an otherwise uniform microstructure may be detrimental to the mechanical properties of a polycrystalline structure. Little is understood of the exact cause of abnormal grain growth. The annealing conditions leading to the onset of abnormal grain growth have been investigated via a series of grain growth experiments carried out on an Al-4wt%Cu alloy. The structure of which consisted of equiaxed grains (<8μ) pinned by a fine dispersion of sub-micron second phase particles, which may dissolve upon annealing. Minority texture components may experience accelerated growth due to a higher energy and mobility compared to the surrounding grain structure. The combination of these two events may result in the abnormal growth of some grains. SEM imaging and EBSD data has then made it possible to characterize the influence of particle dissolution and grain boundary misorientation on the onset of abnormal grain growth. The stability of ‘island grains’ found to exist internally in abnormally large grains has also been investigated in relation to the misorientation relationship and localized second phase volume fraction found there. There was only weak evidence of special misorientation relationships between the island grains and the abnormally large grains in which they exist, and although there was evidence of an enhanced fraction of pinning particles at island grain boundaries, this was also true of boundaries in general. The larger size of island grains is their dominant characteristic, and grains which become island grains may have been incipient abnormal grains.
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