Papers by Keyword: Environmental Factor

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Authors: Siti Zubaidah Ahmad, Mohd Sanusi S. Ahamad, Mohd Suffian Yusoff
Abstract: Location of municipal solid waste landfills in Malaysia has been attributed to causing bad odour, dust, litter, unattractive neighbourhoods, groundwater contamination, hazardous waste pollution and etc. Therefore, proper selection criteria are very important in preliminary siting of new landfill to avoid undesirable long-term effects. This article presents a comprehensive review of landfill spatial siting criteria and their frequency of occurrence (ranked order) found in literatures. The highest ranked criterion is the surface water and the lowest is climate/rainfall density. The dissimilarity in the criteria is found to be specifically influenced by published guidelines or policies from respective countries. In addition, group ranking of spatial criteria from frequency study made on Malaysian local literatures shows that wind factor and infrastructure (utilities) has never been considered in landfill site selection process here. These factors cannot be ignored because enhancing the condition of social, economic and environmental efficiency is part of promoting sustainable development. Subsequently, a benchmarking process of common environmental, physical and socio-economic (EPSE) criteria made with Malaysian landfill siting guideline; National Strategic Plan for Solid Waste Management and Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Treatment and Disposal Project. The bench mark process is useful for research references and its uniformity provides efficient site selection process in solid waste management.
Authors: Bing Bing Liu, Hua Yong Zhang, Song Bo Cui
Abstract: The relationship between bacterioplankton community composition and environmental factors in a constructed small-scale reservoir was studied. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was used to detect plankton communities. Species composition of the sites was heterogeneous; 60 % of the total species were restricted to single samples and only 2 bands were found in all investigated samples. Clustering analysis illustrated a strong correlation between samples taken from same sites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that bacterioplankton community composition was primarily correlated with NO3--N and CODCr. Bacterioplankton community composition could reflect the environmental conditions to some extent.
Authors: Jeong Pyo Nam, Sung Ho Yoon, Young Eun Hwang, Hong Li, Qing Fen Li
Abstract: In this study, the effect of combined environmental factors such as ultraviolet ray, high temperature and high moisture on mechanical and thermal analysis properties of glass fabric and phenolic composites are evaluated through a 2.5KW accelerated environmental aging tester. The environmental factors such as temperature, moisture and ultraviolet ray applied of specimens. A xenon-arc lamp is utilized for ultraviolet light and exposure time of up to 3000 hours are applied. Several types of specimens - tensile, bending, and shear specimens that are warp direction and fill direction are used to investigate the effects of environmental factors on mechanical properties of the composites. Mechanical degradations for tensile, bending and shear properties are evaluated through a Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Also, storage shear modulus, loss shear modulus and tan δ are measured as a function of exposure time through a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). From the experimental results, changes in material properties of glass fabric and phenolic composites are shown to be slightly degraded due to combined environmental effects.
Authors: Wen Kung Tseng, Chung Sheng Lu
Abstract: There are hundreds of accidents every day recorded by government due to the human factor and environmental factor in Taiwan. The accident usually involved the money dispute; therefore the accident appraisal must indicate the bilateral parties’ blame clearly: all blame; major blame; minor blame and none blame. Although the local police can give a preliminary analysis report at first, the report cannot be official evidence. If the people need a credible appraisal report, they have to apply for the Taiwan Provincial Government Traffic Accident Investigation Committee’s accident appraisal report. However, applying for Committee’s accident appraisal report will take long time. Therefore, this study employed radial basis function neural network to build an expert system for appraisal of bilateral vehicle accident. The database was built from 307 accident cases in Taiwan from the year of 2004 to 2010. According to Committee’s analysis, there are 30 appraisal basses including 6 environmental basses and 24 vehicle basses chosen to be the input of the expert system. The training data includes three types: 70 cases training; 140 cases training; 207 cases training. Validation stage was carried out by using 100 fixed cases and the correctness was recorded. In the first stage, correctness rate is 76% for training with 70 cases. In the second stage, correctness rate is increased to 81% for training with 140 cases. In the third stage, correctness rate is increased to 89% for training with 207 cases. The training and validation processes were completed in one second. Therefore, the expert system proposed in this work is demonstrated to be an efficient system for the accident appraisal.
Authors: Xian Yun Liu, Ya Jun Yang, Zhen Ya Wang, Wei Jun Zhang
Abstract: To understand the effects of environmental factors, such as the light intensity, reaction time, the concentration of reactant on the growth of secondary organic aerosol is very important. This paper investigated the effect of environmental factors on SOA formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), results show that SOA formed from OH-initiated photooxidation of BVOCs is predominantly in the form of fine particles, which have diameters less than 2.5 µm. This paper also highlighted that both the number and mass concentration of SOA particles were increasing with the prolonging of the radiation time, the increasing of light intensity, and the increasing of the reactant concentrations. The results could provide useful information to infer possible emission sources of atmospheric particles in future field measurement.
Authors: Dong Xu
Abstract: With the expansion and modernization of cities, the intensity and density of urban underground pipelines are dramatically increasing, and the surrounding environment of the underground pipelines is more complex. This paper analyzed the environmental factors of the pipelines, and divided the environmental factors into soil environment, external force and natural disaster. By using the Accident Tree Analysis researched the basic events that cause the underground pipeline accidents, and the results shows that the most important basic events are the human constructions, without protective measures, and the second important basic events are corrosion failure, no timely detection and treatment of the environment risks, such as underground cavity, encroachment. The evolution mechanism of underground pipeline accident was analyzed. According to the analysis results, the soil surrounding the underground pipelines may be evolved into unstable-state under the influence of environmental inducements, finally the underground pipelines may be damaged and the accidents will happen without any protective measures.
Authors: Tao Xue, Jun Fa Xu
Abstract: The environmental factors have complex effects on the bearing properties of group pile foundation. Based on the "growth" process of the Sutong Bridge and the combination characteristics of environment factors, the relationships between the measured values of the group pile foundation and environmental factors were established. Then, the correlation decision determinations between the measured values and environmental factors were obtained by using the Bayes estimation fusion algorithm. Finally, the impacts of different environment factors on the bearing properties of group pile foundation had been got. The results showed that the impact of seasonal temperatures on the mechanical performances of the group pile foundation is very large.
Authors: Ji Ku Sun, Zong Jie Cao, De Jian Sun, Yi Chen
Abstract: In engineering practices, aircraft structures have been damaged due to the structural corrosion, the corrosive problem of aircrafts needs to call high attentions for researchers because aircraft structures are composed of metals and compound metals. In this paper, corrosion problems and structural reliability of aircraft structures are discussed. Corrosion morphology and mechanism of aircraft structures are analyzed based on metal corrosion theory. The characteristics of the various types of corrosions of aircraft structures have been enumerated. The effect of environments in corrosion process of aircraft structures is studied. The law of corrosion developed at aircraft structural parts or materials is summarized. This research contributes to improving professionals capacity of corrosion prevention and control. It also provides technical support for aircraft maintainers.
Authors: Ji Ping Ma, Cui Jie Rui, Jian Hua Ge, Yu Hua Liu, Zhi Wen Song, Jie Li
Abstract: Based on the Jihogntan reservoir’s monitoring data from 2006 to 2009, eutrophication of Jihongtan reservoir was assessed. The result showed that the nutrition level of the Jihongtan reservoir was middle in recent years. The average concentration of chlorophyll-a(Chla) was higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. The correlation between concentration of Chla and some environmental factors was studied by statistical method, and seasonal variation of Chla and the extent of eutrophication were also analyzed. The results showed that the correlations between Chla and total nitrogen(TN), dissolved oxygen(DO) and transparency were significantly negative, and that between Chla and total phosphorus(TP), temperature(T) and potassium permanganate index(COD Mn) were significantly positive. The growth of phytoplankton was promoted by TP and TN at low concentrations, and inhibited by TN at high concentrations.
Authors: Zhi Yong Zou, Man Zhou, Li Jia Xu, Zhi Liang Kang, Ming Dan Liu
Abstract: To solve the problems of the environmental factor detection and data management in the methane fermentation, this paper proposes a design based on ZigBee and PDA technology. Sensor node with CC2530 as the core can implement detection of oxidation-reduction potential, PH value, temperature, and liquid level. Coordinator node adopts ARM11 and is designed to be a PDA form, which is flexible and easy to use. On the basis of the analysis in ZStack protocol stack, the sensor signal acquisition program is accomplished. Customize wince6.0 embedded operating systems, and transplant an embedded SQlite database for powerful data management features. By using serial communication and multi-thread communication strategies, the Zigbee network data acquisition, acquisition cycle settings, power mode settings, and time synchronous adjustment can be accomplished. As the result of the test, the average packet loss rate of the network transmission is 0.375%. The data comparison charts of sensor nodes with standard instrument detected in continuous 24h are essentially coincident, and it indicates that the sensor circuit has been designed properly, and ZigBee network data transmission is stability, so it can meet the actual requirements of applications. Meanwhile, the system is easy to extend for different scale methane engineering application.
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