Papers by Keyword: Equal Channel Angular Processing

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Authors: Xenia Molodova, Günter Gottstein
Abstract: In the present study the microstructure evolution of the aluminum alloy 3103 subjected to ECAP up to eight passes applying route Bc was investigated after deformation and subsequent isothermal annealing. The deformed and annealed states were analyzed by SEM, EBSD, optical microscopy and microhardness tests. It will be demonstrated that this ECAP deformed material shows an increased stability against discontinuous recrystallization with growing number of passes.
Authors: Nong Gao
Abstract: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a thermal analysis technique that measures the energy absorbed or released by a sample as a function of temperature or time. DSC has wide application for analysis of solid state reactions and solid-liquid reactions in many different materials. In recent years, DSC has been applied to analyze materials and alloys processed through Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD). The basic principle of SPD processing is that a very high strain is introduced into materials which achieve significant grain refinement and improve properties of materials. This review paper presents some recent examples of the applications of DSC for materials subjected to SPD, especially by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing and High-Pressure Torsion.
Authors: Masahiro Kubota, Xiao Lin Wu, Wei Xu, Kenong Xia
Abstract: Mechanically milled pure aluminium powders were fabricated into bulk materials using back pressure equal channel angular consolidation (BP-ECAC) for four or eight passes at 373K. The bulk materials consolidated from 0 h and 4 h mechanically milled powders were characterised by Vickers hardness tests and density measurements. Thermal stability of the consolidated bulk materials was evaluated by isothermal heat treatments at 673K. The as-consolidated bulk material from the 0 h milled (i.e. unmilled) powder showed nearly full density. However, full density was not obtained with the 4 h milled powder even after eight passes. The HV values for the as-consolidated materials fabricated from the 0 h and 4 h milled powders after four passes and from the 4 h milled powder after eight passes were 57, 121 and 136, respectively. Softening was observed in the bulk material consolidated from the 0 h milled powder during the isothermal heat treatment. However, the hardness of the bulk materials consolidated from the 4 h milled powders after four and eight passes increased to maximum values of 137 and 141 after heat treatment for 28 h and 8 h at 673K, respectively. The maximum hardness was maintained for up to 100 h at 673K in both materials. The hardening and thermal stability in the bulk materials from the milled powders are attributable to dispersion strengthening of Al4C3 particles formed by solid-state reaction during the isothermal heat treatment.
Authors: Xiao Lin Wu, Wei Xu, Masahiro Kubota, Kenong Xia
Abstract: Bulk magnesium was consolidated from pure Mg particles with an average size of ~59 µm by back pressure equal channel angular pressing. The Mg powder was processed at 200°C for 4 and 8 passes, respectively, using route C. The consolidated materials displayed density of 1.78 g/cm3, compared to the theoretical value of 1.74 g/cm3 for pure Mg. Vickers microhardness (HV) values were measured to be about 54. Compressive tests at room temperature revealed yield strengths of 100-110 MPa and ultimate strengths of up to 142 MPa with strains to fracture of ~9%, comparable to those for extruded pure Mg. Microstructures were examined using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Authors: Margarita Isaenkova, Yuriy Perlovich, Vladimir Fesenko, Olga Krymskaya
Abstract: Possibilities of X-ray methods, using diffractometric measurements of X-ray line profiles and crystallographic texture, are compared as applied to study of SPD metal materials. The texture analysis gives the most direct data on the degree of grain fragmentation under conditions of deformation. The consideration is illustrated by results, obtained by X-ray studies of ECAP rods from Cu and Ti.
Authors: Igor V. Alexandrov, Vil D. Sitdikov
Abstract: In this article we present the results of the experimental research and those of the processes developing the crystallographic texture of computer modeling in CP Ti in the process of 1-4 equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) passes along the route ВС. The goal of the research was to determine the active deformation mechanisms, depending on the strain degree, accumulated in the ECAP process. The research was carried out by the method of X-ray analysis and by computer modeling. Computer modeling was carried out on the example of visco-plastic self-consistent model. Thereby, the basal, the prismatic and the pyramidal (of the 1st and of the 2nd order) slip systems were considered as possible active slip systems. Besides, the possibility of activating the tensile and the compressive twinning systems were taken into consideration. As the result of the carried out experimental research, the objective laws of forming preferred orientations were determined. For the first time, with the help of computer modeling, made up to the 4th ECAP pass, it was shown that the crystallographic texture development processes in CP Ti in ECAP, realized at temperature of 723 K, can be explained by activation of the basal, prismatic and pyramidal (of the 1st order) slip systems and compressive twinning systems. Therefore, the increase of the ECAP passes can lead to amplification of contribution of the basal and prismatic slip systems, as well as the insignificant weakening of the contribution of pyramidal slip systems (of the 1st order). Moreover, the compressive twinning can become obvious only in the 1st ECAP pass.
Authors: Andrzej Rosochowski, Lech Olejnik, Maria W. Richert
Abstract: Batch SPD processes have a limited scope for being used on an industrial scale. More feasible are continuous processes among which the new SPD process of Incremental ECAP (IECAP) is an attractive option. In this paper, a double-billet version of I-ECAP, which doubles process productivity, is presented. The concept of the process is first checked using the finite element (FE) method. FE simulation results are the basis for the design of an experimental rig. Trials of nanostructuring of 10x10x200 Al 1070 billets are carried out with the forces on the reciprocating die and the feeder measured. Metallurgical samples after 4 and 8 passes of I-ECAP (route BC) are investigated using TEM. Tensile properties after 8 passes are established. All these results show that the new SPD process of I-ECAP gives the results comparable to those obtained by a classical batch ECAP with the added capability of dealing with much longer (possibly infinite) billets.
Authors: Ping Wang, Fu Yin Han, Yong Sheng Wang, Lu Geng, Shao Feng Meng, Wei Liang
Abstract: The microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ61-4Si magnesium alloy before and after equal channel angular processing (ECAP) were studied. Results show that the matrix α-Mg and divorced eutectic β-Mg17Al12 are refined and chinese script type Mg2Si phases are broken to dispersed particles after ECAP. The mechanical properties of the alloy after ECAP are significantly improved. After 4 passes of ECAP, the yield strength is increased from 50MPa to 109 MPa, tensile strength from 129MPa to 237MPa, elongation from 6% to 22%, and hardness from 61.2HBS to71.5HBS. The modification mechanism for microstructure and mechanical properties of the experimental alloy by ECAP was analyzed.
Authors: Ying Liu, Ruo Lin Cheng, Jing Tao Wang, He Zhang, Xin Ming Zhang
Abstract: The effect of severe plastic deformation at ambient temperature on microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 2519 was investigated by means of tensile test, micro-hardness test, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that tensile strength of as-queched 2519 alloy was greatly enhanced to nearly 550MPa (ultimate tensile strength, UTS) and 520MPa (yield strength, YS) by severe cold rolling or equal channel angular processing (ECAP) while the elongation decreased to 5%. The 2519 alloy could obtain quite well mechanical properties as much as 80 % and 12 passes cold rolling deformation. This indicated that pre-deformation by ECAP is effective in improving the mechanical properties of 2519 alloy by grain refinement, strain aging and high density dislocations.
Authors: Ebubekir Dogan, Matthew W. Vaughan, Ibrahim Karaman
Abstract: Mg-3Al-1Zn (AZ31) alloy samples with different starting textures have been processed using Equal Channel Angular Processing (ECAP) at 150°C and 200°C. The common temperature limit for ECAP of wrought AZ31 alloys has been reduced from 200°C to 150°C by suppressing tensile twinning activity. Twinning activity was reduced by either changing the starting texture or increasing the temperature. A crystal plasticity model was utilized to gain a better insight into the operating deformation mechanisms during ECAP. Suppression of tensile twinning and pronounced prismatic slip activity resulted in a crack-free, homogeneous deformation at 150°C. In addition, twinning, when exists, was shown to have a significant effect on the promotion of DRX and shear band formation.
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