Papers by Keyword: Extended Defect

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Authors: Robert E. Stahlbush, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Brenda L. VanMil, D. Kurt Gaskill, Charles R. Eddy
Abstract: The recently developed technique of UVPL imaging has been used to track the path of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) in SiC epitaxial layers. The glide of BPDs during epitaxial growth has been observed and the role of this glide in forming half-loop arrays has been examined. The ability to track the path of BPDs through the epitaxy has made it possible to develop a BPD reduction process for epitaxy grown on 8° offcut wafers, which uses an in situ growth interrupt and has achieved a BPD reduction of > 98%. The images also provide insight into the strong BPD reduction that typically occurs in epitaxy grown on 4° offcut wafers.
Authors: Tsunenobu Kimoto, Gan Feng, Toru Hiyoshi, Koutarou Kawahara, Masato Noborio, Jun Suda
Abstract: Extended defects and deep levels generated during epitaxial growth of 4H-SiC and device processing have been reviewed. Three types in-grown stacking faults, (6,2), (5,3), and (4,4) structures, have been identified in epilayers with a density of 1-10 cm-2. Almost all the major deep levels present in as-grown epilayers have been eliminated (< 1x1011 cm-3) by two-step annealing, thermal oxidation at 1150-1300oC followed by Ar annealing at 1550oC. The proposed two-step annealing is also effective in reducing various deep levels generated by ion implantation and dry etching. The interface properties and MOSFET characteristics with several gate oxides are presented. By utilizing the deposited SiO2 annealed in N2O at 1300oC, a lowest interface state density and a reasonably high channel mobility for both n- and p-channel MOSFETs with an improved oxide reliability have been attained.
Authors: Virginia D. Wheeler, Brenda L. VanMil, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, S. Chung, Yoosuf N. Picard, Marek Skowronski, Robert E. Stahlbush, Nadeemullah A. Mahadik, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: The effectiveness of an in-situ growth interrupt in nitrogen doped 8° off-cut epilayers was investigated using ultraviolet photoluminescence imaging. Low-doped n-type epilayers (<1016 cm-3) exhibited an abrupt increase in BPD to TED conversion at the growth interrupt and achieved 96-99% conversion overall (< 10 BPDs/cm-2), while high-doped epilayers had minimal conversion at the interrupt (< 1%) and overall (< 30%). This large discrepancy suggests nitrogen prohibits or alters the conversion mechanism at the growth interrupt. Therefore, a novel SEM technique was developed to "freeze-in" the interface morphology and help elucidate the conversion mechanism. Preliminary results suggest that preferential etching at the point of BPD intersection with the surface is greatly reduced in highly doped layers, which inhibits the conversion mechanism.
Authors: Massimo Camarda, Antonino La Magna, Francesco La Via
Abstract: Three dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on super-lattices are applied to study the evolution of stacking faults during epitaxial growths. We show that, in the case of misoriented close packed substrates, these defects can either extend throughout the entire epilayer (i.e. extended from the substrate up to the surface) or close in dislocation loops, in dependence of the deposition conditions. We explain this behavior in terms of a surface kinetic competition between these defects and the surrounding crystal: if the local growth rate of the defect is larger compared with that of the perfect crystal the defect will expands, otherwise it will closes. This mechanisms allows to explain several experimental results on homo and hetero epitaxies.
Authors: Hidekazu Tsuchida, Isaho Kamata, Masahiko Ito, Tetsuya Miyazawa, Norihiro Hoshino, Hiroaki Fujibayashi, Hideki Ito, Masami Naitou, Hirofumi Aoki, Koichi Nishikawa, Emi Makino, Yuichiro Tokuda, Jun Kojima
Abstract: This paper introduces our recent challenges in fast 4H-SiC CVD growth and defect reduction. Enhanced growth rates in 4H-SiC epitaxial growth by high-speed wafer rotation and in a high-temperature gas source method promoting SiC bulk growth by increasing the gas flow velocity are demonstrated. Trials and results of deflecting threading dislocations by patterned C-face 4H-SiC epitaxial growth are also shown.
Authors: Fuccio Cristiano, El Mehdi Bazizi, Pier Francesco Fazzini, Simona Boninelli, Ray Duffy, Ardechir Pakfar, Silke Paul, Wilfried Lerch
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the evolution of extended defects during a millisecond Flash anneal after a preamorphising implant. The experimental results, supported by predictive simulations, indicate that during the ultra-fast temperature ramp-up and rump-down occurring in a millisecond Flash anneal, the basic mechanisms that control the growth and evolution of extended defects are not modified with respect to the relatively slower annealing processes, such as “soak” and “spike” Rapid Thermal Annealing. In addition, we have observed a decrease in the number of trapped interstitials in the End-Of-Range (EOR) defects when decreasing the Ge+ amorphisation energy from 30 keV down to 2 keV. This result is ascribed to two concomitant phenomena: (i) the increase of the initial number of interstitials, Ni, created by the amorphisation step, when the implant energy is decreased and (ii) the efficient interstitial annihilation at the silicon surface, whose recombination length, Lsurf, is in the nanometer range even at the very high temperatures employed in millisecond Flash anneals.
Authors: Hidekazu Tsuchida, Masahiko Ito, Isaho Kamata, Masahiro Nagano
Abstract: The transfer and generation of extended defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial growth at a high growth rate are examined. An epilayer with virtually no basal plane dislocations (BPDs) is obtained using 4º off Si-face substrates, although the formation of 3C-polytype inclusions is occasionally observed. The behavior of BPDs and threading screw dislocations (TSDs) in epitaxial growth is also investigated by X-ray topography and transmission electron microscopy, and the propagation of BPDs and conversion and generation of TSDs in the epilayers are discussed.
Authors: P. Saring, C. Rudolf, L. Stolze, A. Falkenberg, Michael Seibt
Abstract: We report on a light-beam-induced current (LBIC)-analysis of metal silicide defects arising from co-precipitation of copper and nickel in Cz-silicon-bicrystals produced by wafer direct bonding. Large colonies of silicide precipitates in the one wafer emerging from undisturbed growth from few nucleation sites were observed in different orientations with respect to the surface which correspond to Si {110} planes. From this, the colonies formed during copper-nickel co-precipitation reveal the same attributes as those colonies typical for copper precipitation in the absence of nickel. Oxygen related defects associated with a higher defect distribution in the other wafer were characterized by means of high resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and their temperature dependent LBIC signal.
Authors: Jae Won Lee, Marek Skowronski
Abstract: The structure of the “star” defect in 4H-SiC substrates and its effects on the extended defect structures in the epilayers were studied by molten KOH etching and transmission x-ray topography. Star defects consist of a center region with high densities of threading dislocations (both edge and screw types) and six arms of dislocation arrays extending along <11-20> directions. In addition, multiple linear dislocation arrays extending perpendicular to the off-cut direction were observed in the epilayers. Dislocation arrays extending along <11-20> directions are consistent with the slip bands generated by the prismatic slip: a/3<11-20>{1-100}. Bands of linear dislocation arrays extending perpendicular to the off-cut direction correspond to the threading edge dislocations nucleated during epitaxial growth.
Authors: Bernd Zippelius, Michael Krieger, Heiko B. Weber, Gerhard Pensl, Hiroyuki Nagasawa, Takamitsu Kawahara, Naoki Hatta, Kuniaki Yagi, Hidetsugu Uchida, Motoki Kobayashi
Abstract: A large leakage current (IR) is observed at reverse bias (VR) in 3C-SiC p+-n diodes. This leakage current is caused by a high density of stacking faults (SFs). The temperature dependence of IR is studied in the temperature range from 100 K to 295 K. It turns out that IR is thermally activated for reverse voltages VR  |170| V. We propose that within this voltage range IR originates from thermally assisted tunneling of electrons and holes from band-like states of the SFs into the conduction and valence band. For VR > |170| V, the thermal barrier is strongly reduced and direct tunneling dominates. These dependences are simulated in the framework of a simplified model.
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